Showing posts with label Luca Giordano. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Luca Giordano. Show all posts

Thursday, February 8, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! by the Old Masters, With Footnotes - 81

Luca Giordano, 1634 - 1705
The Adoration Of The Magi

This Adoration of the Magi by Luca Giordano is likely to date to 1687–89, when the artist was working in Naples before departing for Spain in 1692. Giordano’s skill in depicting a scene that incorporates such a rich panoply of figures resides in his ability to unify different elements within the composition’s broad panorama while retaining many visually arresting components and lively brushwork. More on this painting

The Adoration of the Magi (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: A Magis adoratur) is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. The Adoration of the Magi

Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.


Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More Luca Giordano








Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

We do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.

Saturday, February 3, 2018

03 Paintings, Olympian deities, by the Old Masters, with footnotes # 13

George Frederick Watts, 1817 - 1904
UNDINE
Oil on panel
24 1/4 by 23 3/4 in., 61.6 by 60.3 cm
Private collection

Undine is a fairy-tale novella by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué in which Undine, a water spirit, marries a knight named Huldebrand in order to gain a soul. It is an early German romance, which has been translated into English and other languages.

During the nineteenth century the book was very popular. The story is descended from Melusine, the French folk-tale of a water-sprite who marries a knight on condition that he shall never see her on Saturdays, when she resumes her mermaid shape. It was also inspired by works by the occultist Paracelsus. More on Udine


George Frederic Watts OM RA (London 23 February 1817 – 1 July 1904) was a popular English Victorian painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement. He said "I paint ideas, not things." Watts became famous in his lifetime for his allegorical works, such as Hope and Love and Life. These paintings were intended to form part of an epic symbolic cycle called the "House of Life", in which the emotions and aspirations of life would all be represented in a universal symbolic language. More on George Frederic


Luca Giordano, called Luca Fa Presto
VENUS AT VULCAN'S FORGE
signed on the rock lower center: .LG. (in ligature)
oil on canvas
70 1/8  by 89 7/8  in.; 180 by 228.3 cm.
Private collection

The scene is set in the "underground cavern and galleries leading from [Mount] Etna" on the island of Sicily, the location of Vulcan's forge, as described in the Aeneid (8.370-453). Here, Vulcan-- the god of fire and metalworking—engages in discourse with his wife Venus as he and his workers create what will become arms that she will later give to her mortal son Aeneas. At Venus’ side is Cupid, who clings to her for protection amidst the fire and cacophony of sound.  More on this painting


Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.


Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More Luca Giordano

Frederic, Lord Leighton, P.R.A., 1830-1896
VENUS AND CUPID
oil on canvas
58 by 18 3/4 in., 147.3 by 47.6 cm
Private collection

Venus and Love/ Venus and Cupid. Different tales exist about the origin of Venus and Cupid. Some say that Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, had a love affair with Mars, the god of war. Out of this relationship, Cupid was born. 

Cupid has attributes from both of his parents. Like his mother he is considered to be the god of love, or more precisely, the god of falling in love. He is portrayed as an innocent little child with bow and arrows. He shoots arrows to the heart, and awakening a love that you’re powerless to resist.

Venus and Cupid are often shown in intimate poses, reflecting the unique love between mother and child. More Venus and Love

Frederic, Lord Leighton, P.R.A., 1830-1896
VENUS AND CUPID
Detail

Frederic Leighton, 1830–1896, British, English. (Born Scarborough, 3 December 1830; died London, 25 January 1896). English painter, draughtsman, and occasional sculptor, one of the dominant figures of late Victorian art. He travelled widely in Europe as a boy and his artistic education was gained principally in Frankfurt, Rome, and Paris. It was not until 1859 that he settled in England, but he had earlier made his name with Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna is Carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence, which he painted in Rome: it was exhibited at the 1855 Royal Academy exhibition and bought by Queen Victoria (it is now on loan from the Royal Collection to the National Gallery, London).

From the mid-1860s he enjoyed a level of worldly success. He became president of the Royal Academy in 1878, was made a baronet in 1886, and a few days before he died was raised to the peerage, the first (and so far only) British artist to be so honoured. 



He is best known for his paintings of classical Greek subjects, the finest of which are distinguished by magnificently opulent colouring as well as splendid draughtsmanship. As a sculptor his output was small. The finished life-size bronze is in Tate Britain and there are various smaller models and versions, including one in Leighton House, the sumptuously decorated house and studio he built in the fashionable Holland Park area of London, now a museum dedicated to him. More Frederic Leighton



















Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others

We do not sell art, art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.


If you enjoyed this post, please share with friends and family.


Saturday, May 27, 2017

10 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretations of the Bible! by The Old Masters, With Footnotes # 50

Maestro de Borbotó, ACTIVE IN VALENCIA FIRST QUARTER OF THE 16TH CENTURY
SAINT LUCY
oil on panel
10 3/8  by 12 1/2  in.; 26.5 by 31.8 cm.
Private collection

Saint Lucy, Italian Santa Lucia (died 304, Syracuse, Sicily), virgin and martyr who was one of the earliest Christian saints to achieve popularity, having a widespread following before the 5th century. She is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily). Because of various traditions associating her name with light, she came to be thought of as the patron of sight.

Lucy came from a wealthy Sicilian family. Spurning marriage and worldly goods, however, she vowed to remain a virgin in the tradition of St. Agatha. An angry suitor reported her to the local Roman authorities, who sentenced her to be removed to a brothel and forced into prostitution. This order was thwarted, according to legend, by divine intervention; Lucy became immovable and could not be carried away. She was next condemned to death by fire, but she proved impervious to the flames. Finally, her neck was pierced by a sword and she died.

Lucy was a victim of the wave of persecution of Christians that occurred late in the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian. References to her are found in early Roman sacramentaries and, at Syracuse, in an inscription dating from 400 ce. As evidence of her early fame, two churches are known to have been dedicated to her in Britain before the 8th century, at a time when the land was largely pagan. More Saint Lucy

Giovanni Battista Salvi, called Sassoferrato, SASSOFERRATO 1609 - 1685 ROME
THE MADONNA AND CHILD
Oil on canvas
19 1/8  by 15 1/4  in.; 48.5 by 38.5 cm
Private collection

Sassoferrato specialized in the production of private devotional works, and was primarily employed by his patrons to provide images for personal spiritual contemplation. This composition is one of his most famous and successful designs. Known in a number of variants. The design appears to derive from a lost work by Guido Reni, now known only through contemporary engravings, but the distinctive coloring and handling of the drapery is entirely Sassoferrato's own. More on this painting

Giovanni Battista Salvi, called Il Sassoferrato (1609-1685). Giovanni Battista Salvi was born in Sassoferrato and went to Rome at an early age to study the paintings of Raphael. Later he sojourned in Naples to study the works of Annibale Carracci and his circle, especially Guido Reni. For most of his life he worked in Rome. His favorite subjects were Madonnas which he often depicted praying and along with the sleeping child. Paintings by Sassoferrato are in many churches and galleries in Italy. More on Giovanni Battista Salvi

Studio of Jusepe de Ribera, called Lo Spagnoletto, JÁTIVA, VALENCIA 1591 - 1652 NAPLES
SAINT ANDREW
Oil on canvas
51 by 40 in.; 130 by 101.7 cm.
Private collection

Andrew the Apostle (from the early 1st century – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
The name "Andrew", like other Greek names, appears to have been common among the Jews, Christians, and other Hellenized people of Judea. No Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. According to Orthodox tradition, the apostolic successor to Saint Andrew is the Patriarch of Constantinople. More Andrew the Apostle 
Most references to Andrew in the New Testament simply include him on a list of the Twelve Apostles, or group him with his brother, Simon Peter. But he appears acting as an individual three times in the Gospel of John. When a number of Greeks wish to speak with Jesus, they approach Philip, who tells Andrew, and the two of them tell Jesus. (It may be relevant here that both "Philip" and "Andrew" are Greek names.) Before Jesus feeds the Five Thousand, it is Andrew who says, "Here is a lad with five barley loaves and two fish." And the first two disciples whom John reports as attaching themselves to Jesus are Andrew and another disciple (whom John does not name, but who is commonly supposed to be John himself). Having met Jesus, Andrew then finds his brother Simon and brings him to Jesus. Thus, on each occasion when he is mentioned as an individual, it is because he is instrumental in bringing others to meet the Saviour. In the Episcopal Church, the Fellowship of Saint Andrew is devoted to encouraging personal evangelism, and the bringing of one's friends and colleagues to a knowledge of the Gospel of Christ. More Andrew

José de Ribera (January 12, 1591 – September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, better known as Jusepe de Ribera. He also was called Lo Spagnoletto ("the Little Spaniard") by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy. More on José de Ribera

Roman School, first half of the 17th Century
THE LAMENTATION
Oil on canvas
45 5/8  by 62 in.; 116 by 157.7 cm
Private collection

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.

Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà (Italian for "pity") More The Lamentation of Christ

Roman School, 17th Century. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome, making it the centre of High Renaissance; in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Piranesi, Pannini and Mengs.

In the 17th century Italian art was diffused mainly from Rome, the indisputable centre of the Baroque.

Roman Mannerism, spread abroad by the prolific work of Federico and Taddeo Zuccari, was continued by Roncalli, called Pomarancio and especially by Giuseppe Cesari, called Cavaliere d'Arpino, whose reputation was immense. The reaction against Mannerism engendered two different movements, which were sometimes linked together: one was realist with Caravaggio, the other eclectic and decorative with the Carracci.

Caravaggio brought about the greatest pictorial revolution of the century. His imposing compositions, deliberately simplified, are remarkable for their rigorous sense of reality and for the contrasting light falling from one side that accentuates the volumes. He changed from small paintings of genre and still-life, clear in light and cool in colour, to harsh realism, strongly modelled volumes and dramatic light and shade. His work, like his life, caused much scandal and excited international admiration.

Among the Italian disciples of Caravaggio Carlo Saraceni was the only direct Venetian follower. Bartolomeo Manfredi imitated Caravaggio's genre paintings; Orazio Gentileschi and his daughter Artemisia Gentileschi showed a marked realism. Caravaggio's biographer and enemy, Giovanni Baglione underwent his influence. More Roman School, 17th Century

Scipione Pulzone, GAETA 1544 - 1598 ROME
THE MADONNA ANNUNCIATE
Oil on canvas
24 by 19 in.; 61.1 by 48.2 cm.
Private collection

This Madonna Annunciate is characteristic of Pulzone's style from the early 1590s and is a reworking of the same figure in the artist's Annunciation from 1587 which hangs in the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. More this painting

The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yehoshua , meaning "YHWH is salvation".

According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus. In England, this came to be known as Lady Day. It marked the new year until 1752. The 2nd-century writer Irenaeus of Lyon regarded the conception of Jesus as 25 March coinciding with the Passion. More The Annunciation

Scipione Pulzone (1544 – February 1, 1598), also known as Il Gaetano, was a Neapolitan painter of the late Italian Renaissance. His work differs in several respects from the Mannerist predominant at the time. He was active mainly in Rome, but also worked in Naples and Florence. It is thought that he studied under Jacopino del Conte in Rome.

Best known for his portraits, Pulzone painted Pope Gregory XIII, Cardinal de' Medici and Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Eleanor de' Medici, and Marie de' Medici. He also painted an Assumption with the Apostles for San Silvestro al Quirinale; a Pietà for the Gesù; and a Crucifixion for Santa Maria in Vallicella.

Pulzone's Mater Divinae Providentiae, painted around 1580, inspired the Roman Catholic cult of devotion to Our Lady of Providence. More on Scipione Pulzone

Luca Giordano, called Fa Presto, NAPLES 1634 - 1705
SAMSON SLAYING THE PHILISTINES 
Oil on canvas
50 3/4  by 70 1/2  in.; 129 by 179 cm.
Private collection

Giordano reprised the subject much later in his career, around 1695-96, for a series of paintings depicting episodes from the life of Samson, now in the Museo del Prado, Madrid and again in a canvas dating to around 1703, published by Scavizzi while in the del Bosco collection, Poirino, Turin. More this painting

Samson was an Old Testament judge who is known more as an adventurer of great physical strength as well as a womanizer. Like Hercules, he slayed a lion with his bare hands and then wore the skin to broadcast his super-human capabilities. Taunted by the Philistines, Samson wielded an ass’s jawbone and slew a thousand of them until they lay in heaps on the ground. The medieval church regarded Samson as a prefiguring of Christ; he also often represents Fortitude. More on Samson Slaying the Philistines.

Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.

Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More Luca Giordano

Follower of Follower of Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, circa 1642
THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS
Oil on panel
35 1/2  by 29 7/8  in.; 90.3 by 70.6 cm.
Private collection

This highly refined panel closely follows Rembrandt’s celebrated composition The Descent from the Cross, which was part of the founding collection of the Alte Pinakothek in Munich in 1836 (below). Rembrandt’s prototype from circa 1633 is one of seven paintings commissioned for the Stadtholder Frederick Hendrik, Prince of Orange, between the years 1633 and 1646.

Rembrandt,  (1606–1669)
The Deposition, c. 1632-1633
Oil on cedar panel
Height: 89.4 cm (35.2 in). Width: 65.2 cm (25.7 in).
Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

Rembrandt received a commission from the court in about 1628 for five paintings of the Passion of Christ. The series started with the Raising of the Cross and Descent from the Cross. He was hired to create small versions of Rubens famous altarpieces in Antwerp (below). It must also have been agreed between Huygens and Rembrandt that the artist would inset himself into the composition of the Descent from the Cross as one of the followers of Christ who eased the body to the ground.  More on Rembrandt's commission

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.

Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified most notably in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.

In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization." More on Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn

RUBENS, Peter Paul, (b. 1577, Siegen, d. 1640, Antwerpen)
Descent from the Cross, c. 1612-14
Oil on panel
421 x 311 cm (centre panel), 421 x 153 cm (wings)
O.-L. Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp

RUBENS, Peter Paul, (b. 1577, Siegen, d. 1640, Antwerpen)
Descent from the Cross, c. 1612-14
Detail of the Centre panel

In 1611, the Arquebusiers - Antwerp's civic guard - commissioned a Descent from the Cross by Rubens for their altar in the cathedral. The dean of the guild at that time was Burgomaster Nicolaas Rockox, who appears in the painting. The Descent from the Cross is the second of Rubens's great altarpieces for the Antwerp Cathedral. It shows the Visitation, and the Presentation of the Temple on either side of the Descent from the Cross. More on this painting

RUBENS, Peter Paul, (b. 1577, Siegen, d. 1640, Antwerpen)
Descent from the Cross, c. 1612-14
Detail of  the Visitation, left panel

The Visitation. Mary visits her relative Elizabeth; they are both pregnant. Mary is pregnant with Jesus and Elizabeth is pregnant with John the Baptist. Elizabeth was in the sixth month before Mary came. Mary stayed three months, and most scholars hold she stayed for the birth of John. The apparition of the angel, mentioned in Matthew, may have taken place then to end the tormenting doubts of Joseph regarding Mary's maternity.

In Catholicism, it is held that the purpose of this visit was to bring divine grace to both Elizabeth and her unborn child. Even though he was still in his mother's womb, John became aware of the presence of Christ, and leapt for joy as he was cleansed from original sin and filled with divine grace. Elizabeth also responded and recognised the presence of Jesus, and thus Mary exercised her function as mediatrix between God and man for the first time. More on The Visitation

RUBENS, Peter Paul, (b. 1577, Siegen, d. 1640, Antwerpen)
Descent from the Cross, c. 1612-14
Detail of  the Presentation, right panel

The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, according to the gospel, Mary and Joseph took the Infant Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification after childbirth, and to perform the redemption of the firstborn son. Luke explicitly says that Joseph and Mary take the option provided for poor people (those who could not afford a lamb), sacrificing "a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." Leviticus indicates that this event should take place forty days after birth for a male child, hence the Presentation is celebrated forty days after Christmas. More on The Presentation

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England.  More Sir Peter Paul Rubens

Dirck Dircksz. van Santvoort, AMSTERDAM CIRCA 1610 - 1680
JOSEPH IN PRISON
oil on panel
12 by 15 3/4  in.; 30.5 by 40 cm.
Private collection

Joseph was taken to Egypt by the Ishmaelite traders, he was purchased by Potiphar, an Egyptian officer. Potiphar was captain of the guard for Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. Joseph works hard for his master, Potʹi·phar. So when Joseph grows older, Potʹi·phar puts him in charge of his whole house. 

Joseph was a very handsome and well-built young man, and Potiphar’s wife soon began to look at him lustfully. “Come and sleep with me,” she demanded. Joseph refused. “Look,” he told her, “my master trusts me with everything in his entire household. 9 No one here has more authority than I do. He has held back nothing from me except you, because you are his wife. How could I do such a wicked thing? It would be a great sin against God.”

So when her husband comes home, she lies to him and says: ‘Joseph tried to lie down with me!’ Potʹi·phar believes his wife, and he is very angry with Joseph. So he has him thrown into prison. More on Joseph in prison

Dirck Dircksz van Santvoort (1610–1680) was a Dutch Golden Age painter. Santvoort was born and died in Amsterdam. Though not registered as a Rembrandt pupil, he is considered a member of Rembrandt's school of painting, creating portraits and historical allegories. More Dirck Dircksz van Santvoort











Acknowledgement: Sotheby's,    , and others

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others



We do not sell art prints, framed posters or reproductions. Ads are shown only to compensate the hosting expenses.

Sunday, August 7, 2016

44 Paintings, RELIGIOUS ART - Paintings from the Bible, with footnotes. Saint Michael, Archangel, and Chief Commander, 22

The Sacred Scriptures have revealed the proper names of only three Angels, all of whom belong to the Choir of the Archangels. The names are well known to all, namely: Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael.

Spinello Aretino, 1345-52; died 1410
Saint Michael and Other Angels, c. 1408-10
Arezzo Fresco Fragments
Fresco (with areas of secco) transferred to canvas
116.2 x 170.2 cm
The National Gallery, London

This and other fragments in the Collection are from a large fresco of the 'Fall of Lucifer' which was painted for S. Michele Arcangelo in Arezzo, Italy. The scene shows Saint Michael and other angels fighting a war in heaven. The battle took place before God who was originally shown enthroned above, while Lucifer's agents plunge to earth below. More

Spinello Aretino, (born c. 1346, Commune of Arezzo — died March 14, 1410, Arezzo) late Gothic Italian painter noteworthy for his vigorous narrative sense. His style anticipates the realistic painting of the early Renaissance of the 15th century. Early in his career he came under the influence of Orcagna and Nardo di Cione, whose style shows in his first major work, a fresco cycle in San Francesco at Arezzo.

A facile artist, Spinello soon gained a reputation beyond his native town. Further commissions followed, and between 1404 and his death he seems to have divided his time between Arezzo and Siena, where he undertook work (lost) for the cathedral and painted (1407–10) a cycle of fresco scenes from the life of Pope Alexander III in the Palazzo Pubblico. These and the Pisa frescoes constitute his most important works. More

In the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, the archangels Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel are also referred to as saints. In Islam, Gabriel is considered an archangel whom God is believed to have sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad. The 96th chapter of the Quran, The Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first chapter revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad. More

The Scriptural passages gives to St. Michael four offices:
  1. To fight against Satan.
  2. To rescue the souls of the faithful from the power of the enemy, especially at the hour of death.
  3. To be the champion of God's people, the Jews in the Old Law, the Christians in the New Testament; therefore he was the patron of the Church, and of the orders of knights during the Middle Ages.
  4. To call away from earth and bring men's souls to judgment
Master of Mileseva
Fresco in the church of Mileseva, c. 1235
Fresco
Church of Mileseva, Serbia

To be the champion of God's people

Francesco Botticini (1446–1497)
The Three Archangels and Tobias, c. 1470
Left Angel: Michael, Middle angels: Raphael, Young: Tobias
Right angel Gabriel, 
Tempera on panel
135 × 154 cm (53.1 × 60.6 in)
Uffizi Gallery

According to the story, Tobias was the only child of a blind holy man named Tobit and his wife, Anna, who were Jews from Nineveh circa 700 BC.  Tobit sent his young son Tobias on an errand to a distant land to collect monies that were owed to him. As he started on his journey Tobias was met by the angle, Raphael, disguised as a man named Azarias.  

Filippino Lippi, 1457-1504
The Three Archangels and Tobias, c. 1485
Oil on panel
100 cm × 127 cm (39 in × 50 in)
Galleria Sabauda, Turin

On the background of a rocky landscape, resembling that of the London Adoration of the Magi, the picture represents the three archangels: Michael on the left, Raphael in the centre, and Gabriel holding a lily, together with a young Tobias, son of Tobit. The scene is clearly inspired to a Voyage of Tobias by Botticini, once in the Florentine church of Florence and now at the Uffizi, while the angels resemble those painted by Filippino himself in the Liberation of St. Peter in the Brancacci Chapel.

The work was once attributed to Sandro Botticelli or his workshop.

Filippino Lippi, (born c. 1457, Prato, Republic of Florence—died April 18, 1504, Florence) early Renaissance painter of the Florentine school whose works influenced the Tuscan Mannerists of the 16th century. After his father’s death, Filippino entered the workshop of Botticelli. By 1473 he had finished his apprenticeship. The style of Filippino’s earliest works stems from that of Botticelli, but Filippino’s use of line is less sensitive and subtle than Botticelli’s. In a group of paintings executed about 1480–85 he developed a harder and more individual style. Among the most notable works of this period is the Journey of Tobias (above). He was employed, along with Botticelli, Perugino, and Domenico Ghirlandaio, on the frescoed decoration of Lorenzo de’ Medici’s villa at Spedaletto and at the end of 1482 was commissioned to complete work left unfinished by Perugino in the Palazzo della Signoria in Florence. No trace of either work survives. Soon after (probably 1483–84) he was entrusted with the completion of the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in the Carmine, which had been left unfinished on Masaccio’s death in 1428.

After his return from Rome, Filippino executed a fresco of the Death of Laocoön for the villa of Lorenzo de’ Medici at Poggio a Caiano, in which some of the decorative devices used in the Carafa Chapel are again employed, and resumed work in the Strozzi Chapel (completed 1502), the frescoes of which anticipate Tuscan Mannerism of the 16th century. More

Tobias and the angel started on their way. They stopped the first night by the River Tigris and as Tobias went to wash his feet a monstrous fish came up and tired to devour him.  Tobias wrestled with the fish and managed to haul it out onto the dry land. The angel told Tobias to cut out the heart, gall and liver and save them as they were powerful medicines.

Workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio (1436–1488)
Tobias and the Angel, c. 1470 until 1475
Egg tempera on poplar wood
83.6 × 66 cm (32.9 × 26 in)
National Gallery

Andrea del Verrocchio (1436–1488), see note 2, bottom

Tobias and the angel arrived at the house of a kinsman named Raguel who had a daughter named Sara, his only child. Sara had been married seven times and all seven husbands had been killed by a devil. The angel Raphael told Tobias that he should married Sara. Tobias, was a little hesitant to marry Sara, but the angel told him to place the heart of the fish over the fire and that this smoke would kill the devil. 

Domenico Di Michelino, (1417 - 91)
Tobias and the Three Archangels
Tempera on panel
Galleria dell' Accademia, Florence, 
.
Domenico Di Michelino, (1417 - 91), see note 3, bottom

Sara and Tobias married and spent some time with her family before returning to his parents. Sara’s father, Raguel sent them on their way.

Tobias and Sara returned to Tobit and Anna. Tobias anointed his father’s eyes with the gall of the fish and Tobit’s sight was restored.

Girolamo Savoldo (c. 1480-1485 – after 1548) 
Tobias and the Angel, c. 1540
Oil on canvas, 96 x 124 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome

Girolamo Savoldo (c. 1480-1485 – after 1548), see note 1, bottom

Tobit and Tobias discussed what wages to give Ararias. When They approached Azarias to tell him that they wanted to give him half of what they have Azarias revels himself as the angel, Raphael, and explained that he had been sent by God because Tobit has been such a holy man.

In paintings Tobias is generally depicted carrying a fish and accompanied by his small dog and the angel, Raphael. More

Francesco Botticini, (1446  - Death: 1498). The artist was born Francesco di Giovanni Botticini. His father painted playing cards as an artisan, influencing his son to work independently after his brief training. His studies were under the prolific painter Neri di Bicci (1419 – 1492) for one year. Botticini also studied under another of Bicci’s pupils, Cosimo Rosselli (1439 – 1507) and also with the influential Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488). His 1470 piece, The Three Archangels (above), now in the Uffizi Gallery, was once thought to be Verrocchio’s.

As exampled by his works in the cloistered church in Empoli, Botticini painted in a highly decorative style. Operating his own workshop by 1469, his decorative style was praised much, but still overshadowed by contemporaries such as Filippo Lippi (1457 – 1504) and Sandro Botticelli (1444 – 1510). More

Anonymous Byzantine painter (395-1453 AD)
Michael the Archangel
13th-century Byzantine icon
The Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai

Jaime Huguet, 1412–1492
Michael the Archangel, 1456
Tempera on panel
213 x 136 cm
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona

The painting belongs to an altarpiece of Sts Michael and Stephen, originally in the church Santa Maria del Pi in Barcelona.

Jaume Huguet 1412–1492, was a Catalan painter. Originally from Valls, he moved to Tarragona to stay with his uncle Pere Huguet, who was also a painter. When they moved to Barcelona he was exposed to modern trends of the time. Between 1440 and 1445 he worked in Zaragoza and later in Tarragona, where he was influenced by the Flemish style of Luis Dalmau.

A number of works by Huguet, including The Consecration of Saint Augustine, are held in the collection of the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain. More

Piero della Francesca, 1415/20 - 1492
Saint Michael, c. 1469
Oil on poplar
133 x 59.5 cm
The National Gallery, London

Piero della Francesca (1415 – 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. As testified by Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, to contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting was characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes The History of the True Cross in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo. More

 Carlo Crivelli
Saint Michael, about 1476
Tempera on poplar
90.5 x 26.5 cm
The National Gallery, London

This painting is part of the group: Four Panels from an Altarpiece, Ascoli Piceno

Carlo Crivelli ( Venice 1430? – Ascoli Piceno 1495) was an Italian Renaissance painter of conservative Late Gothic decorative sensibility,[1] who spent his early years in the Veneto, where he absorbed influences from the Vivarini, Squarcione and Mantegna. He left the Veneto by 1458 and spent most of the remainder of his career in the March of Ancona, where he developed a distinctive personal style that contrasts with that of his Venetian contemporary Giovanni Bellini. More

To fight against Satan

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
The Great Battlec. 1562

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
Fighting the Rebels, c. 1562
Height: 162 cm (63.8 in). Width: 117 cm (46.1 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
The Archangel Michael
Height: 162 cm (63.8 in). Width: 117 cm (46.1 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
The Fall of the Rebel Angels, c. 1562
Height: 162 cm (63.8 in). Width: 117 cm (46.1 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
The Fallen Angels, c. 1562
Height: 162 cm (63.8 in). Width: 117 cm (46.1 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

Painted in 1562, Bruegel's depiction of this subject is taken from a passage from the Book of Revelation (12, 2-9)[2] and reveals the artist's profound debt to Hieronymous Bosch, especially in the grotesque figures of the fallen angels, shown as half-human, half-animal monsters. Together with Dulle Griet and The Triumph of Death, which have similar dimensions, it was probably painted for the same collector and destined to become part of a series. More

Pieter Bruegel (c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. He is sometimes referred to as the "Peasant Bruegel". From 1559, he dropped the 'h' from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel.

Bruegel was born in a "village near Breda", the town of Breugel. His master, according to van Mander, was the Antwerp painter Pieter Coecke van Aelst. In 1551 Bruegel became a free master in the Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp. In 1552 Bruegel was assigned to paint the rear of two wings of a triptych in Mechelen. Between 1552 and 1553 Bruegel traveled to Italy. He visited Rome, where he met the miniaturist Giulio Clovio, whose will of 1578 lists three paintings by Bruegel. These works, apparently landscapes, have not survived. About 1555 Bruegel returned to Antwerp by way of the Alps, which resulted in a number of exquisite drawings of mountain landscapes. 

Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1526/1530–1569)
A Good Angel, c. 1562
Height: 162 cm (63.8 in). Width: 117 cm (46.1 in).
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

He received the nickname "Peasant Bruegel" or "Bruegel the Peasant" for his practice of dressing up like a peasant in order to socialize at weddings and other celebrations, thereby gaining inspiration and authentic details for his genre paintings. He died in Brussels on 9 September 1569 and was buried in the Kapellekerk. More

At the great battle in Heaven, when the angels under Lucifer revolt against God, Michael, leads the faithful angels, defeats the hosts of evil and drives them out. In this role he has been painted by many artists. Because of this victory, St. Michael is revered in Catholic tradition and liturgy as the protector of the Church, as once he was regarded as the protector of the Israelites. In the Eastern Church, as well as among many theologians in the West, St Michael is placed over all the angels, as prince of the Seraphim.

Francesco Maffei
The Archangel Michael overthrowing Lucifer, ca. 1656
Oil on stone 
80 x 75 cm
Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, on deposit with the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC)

Francesco Maffei (1605 – 2 July 1660) was an Italian painter, active in the Baroque style. He probably trained in his birthplace of Vicenza with his father, and painted mostly in the towns of the Veneto. He died in Padua.

He is noted for his somewhat provincial stylistic quirks, combining the decorative manner of baroque with visual distortions and nervous brush strokes. His figures often glimmer with imprecise borders; a style which would characterize also the pittura de tocco e di macchia for decades. 

His canvases are often crowded with people and vigorous action. He was trained under the Mannerist painter, Alessandro Maganza, yet was influenced by a variety of painters. He is known to have traveled briefly to Venice in 1638, where he would have encountered the then brash new baroque painterly style. Maffei left Vicenza in 1657 and settled in Padua, where he died of the plague. He influenced a variety of painters, including Andrea Celesti (c1637-1711) and Antonio Bellucci (1654–1727), a mentor of Sebastiano Ricci. More

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640)
St Michael expelling Lucifer and the rebellious angels from Heaven
149 x 126 cm
Oil on canvas
Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640), see below

Raphael, (1483–1520)
Saint Michael Vanquishing Satan, c. 1518
Oil transferred from wood to canvas
268 × 160 cm (105.5 × 63 in)
Louvre Museum

Saint Michael Vanquishing Satan may have been painted for Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, around 1503−1505, at the same time as Saint George and the Dragon (INV. 609), with which it has always been associated.

Raphael (1483–1520)
Saint Michael Vanquishing Satan, c. 1518
Detail
In the Apocalypse of Saint John (Book of Revelation), the Archangel Michael, having overcome the rebel angels, slays the dragon, an allegorical embodiment of evil, and casts it to earth. In this depiction, Raphael enriched the scene’s traditional representation with ancillary scenes inspired by the Inferno in the Divine Comedy, in which Dante recounts the punishment of hypocrites and thieves. On the left, the hypocrites, shrouded in gilded lead cloaks, are emerging from the ground and parading before the burning city, while on the right the naked thieves are at being devoured by snakes and black birds. More
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483 – April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.
 Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking.
After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models. His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years (1504–1508) absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. More


Master of Belmonte (Spanish, Aragon, active ca. 1445–90)
Saint Michael, c. 1450–1500
Tempera and oil on wood
85 1/2 x 47 in. (217.2 x 119.4 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Armed with a coat of mail, dagger, shield, and lance, the archangel Michael symbolizes the triumph over evil. The demon at his feet is the Antichrist, cast out of heaven. More
Master of Belmonte, also called Master of Monterde and Monterde Master,  1445-1490. 

Spanish (Valencian) Painter (active in Italy, early 15th century)
Saint Michael and the Dragon, 1c. 405
Tempera on wood, gold ground
41 3/8 x 40 3/4 in. (105.1 x 103.5 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
This work was painted in Italy by an unknown artist whose style is indebted to the richness and refinement of Valencian art at the beginning of the fifteenth century. Saint Michael wears a brightly colored brigandine embellished with gold foliate decoration and wields a great sword with almost balletic grace against the seven-headed dragon of the Apocalypse. More

David, Gerard
Altarpiece of St Michael. c.1510
Oil on wood
66 x 53 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
DAVID, Gerard, (b. ca. 1460, Oudewater, d. 1523, Bruges), Flemish painter who was the last great master of the Bruges school.
David went to Bruges, presumably from Haarlem, where he is supposed to have formed his
early style under the instruction of Albert van Ouwater; he joined the guild of St Luke at Bruges in 1484 and became dean in 1501.

In his early work he followed the Haarlem tradition as represented by Ouwater and Geertgen tot Sint Jans but already shown evidence of his superiority as a colourist. But the works on which David's fame rests most securely are his great altarpieces. These are mature works - severe yet richly coloured, showing a masterful handling of light, volume, and space. The Judgment panels are especially notable for being among the earliest Flemish paintings to employ such Italian Renaissance devices as putti and garlands. In Antwerp David became impressed by the life and movement in the work of Quentin Massys, who had introduced a more intimate and more human conception of sacred themes. More


Bonifacio Veronese, (b. 1487, Verona, d. 1557, Venezia)
St Michael Vanquishing the Devil, c. 1530
Oil on canvas
Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice

Bonifacio Veronese, (b. 1487, Verona, d. 1557, Venezia) produced animated paintings for private clients in which biblical themes were merely a pretext for depicting the banquets or musical entertainments of the Venetian nobility. He also produced religious works for churches. Even the depiction of this vigorous struggle between St Michael and the devil remains poised and harmoniously composed, although this entails some loss of expressive force.
The Chapel of Our Lady of the Rosary was destroyed by fire in 1867. The restored chapel was reopened only in 1959. It is now decorated with many 16th-17th-century paintings originated from other Venetian churches and collections. Bonifacio's painting belongs to this decoration. More
Juan de Flandes (Netherlandish, active by 1496–died 1519 Palencia)
Saints Michael and Francis, ca. 1505–9
Oil on wood, gold ground
36 7/8 x 34 1/4 in. (93.7 x 87 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
This panel was originally part of a large Spanish altarpiece. The artist has placed both figures within niches, but in contrast to the frontal, ascetic image of Saint Francis, who is neatly contained within the shallow space, Michael extends beyond his niche. Stabbing the dragon at his feet, the archangel gazes earthward at the apocalyptic vision—a walled, smoking city—that is reflected in his decorative shield. This latter detail still hints at Juan de Flandes’s Netherlandish origin. The introduction of a gold background and the broad painting technique, however, reveal his efforts to adapt his style to Spanish taste. More

Juan de Flandes (Netherlandish, active by 1496–died 1519 Palencia)
Saints Michael and Francis, ca. 1505–9
Detail

Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 3 October 1226),[1][3] was an Italian Roman Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis and the Custody of the Holy Land. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.
In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. In 1224, he received the stigmata, during the apparition of Seraphic angels in a religious ecstasy making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. More
Juan de Flandes ("John of Flanders"; c. 1460 – by 1519) was an Early Netherlandish painter who was active in Spain from 1496 to 1519; his actual name is unknown, although an inscription Juan Astrat on the back of one work suggests a name such as "Jan van der Straat". Jan Sallaert, who became a master in Ghent in 1480, has also been suggested.
He was born around 1460 in Flanders (modern Belgium). He evidently trained in his home country, most likely in Ghent, as his work shows similarities to other Ghent artists. He is only documented after he became an artist at the court of Queen Isabella I of Castile, where he is first mentioned in the accounts in 1496. He is described as "court painter" by 1498 and continued in the queen's service until her death in 1504. He mostly painted portraits of the royal family, but also the majority of a large series of small panels for a polyptych altarpiece for the queen. The panels have been dispersed and the largest number of panels is in the royal collection in Madrid.

Juan de Flandes (Netherlandish, active by 1496–died 1519 Palencia)
Saints Michael and Francis, ca. 1505–9
Detail, a walled, smoking city

After Isabella's death in 1504 Juan de Flandes turned to ecclesiastical commissions from Spanish churches, beginning in Salamanca in 1505–7. He was later based in Palencia, where there is a large reredos in the Cathedral. The overwhelming majority of his work, held in collections outside Spain, date from this later period during which he concentrated on religious themes.

His works show the Early Netherlandish style of Ghent adapted to the Spanish taste and landscape, notably the requirements for groups of compartmented scenes for altarpieces. His colouring is refined, "with a preference for rather acid hues", and "while his feeling for space and light is sophisticated, a tendency to divide space into a succession of thin planes becomes a mannerism in his late works". More


Luca Giordano, (1632–1705)
Archangel Michael Hurls the Rebellious Angels into the Abyss, circa 1666
Oil on canvas
419 × 283 cm (165 × 111.4 in)
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna


The fall of the rebel angels is the greatest single theme of the Counter-Reformation. It is a theme that allowed a church in conflict to present its propaganda in the form of its struggle against all forms of heresy. At the same time, the theme of the struggling angel also symbolized the triumph of light over the rebellion of the powers of darkness - giving the painter an opportunity to create a chiaroscuro charged with meaning, in which heaven and hell, the incense of the blessed and the brimstone of the damned are contrasted in an extremely confined space, creating an arc of tension within which the knight-like angel spreads his broad wings and wields his sword in a sweeping gesture of victory.

Giordano sets the scene with relatively few figures compared to, say, Rubens' Great Last Judgment. Against a background of deep golden light, the archangel balances with an almost balletic movement on the heavy breast of Lucifer, entangled amidst a group of his servants, his angular and batlike wings cutting through the hazy sfumato of the hellfire. What appears at first glance to be so dramatic is not in fact the depiction of a struggle as such. Michael is not attacking the figures from hell with his sword, but is holding it aloft like a sign, as though his mere appearance were enough to cast Satan and his followers into eternal damnation. More

Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

Luca Giordano, (1632–1705) 
St Michael. circa 1663
Oil on canvas
Height: 198 cm (78 in). Width: 147 cm (57.9 in).
Gemäldegalerie, Berlin

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.

Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More

Bartolomé Esteban Perez Murillo, (1618 - 1682)
Saint Michael banishes the devil to the abyss, c. (1665/68)
110 x 170 cm (43,2 x 66,6 inches)
On canvas
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (born late December 1617, baptized January 1, 1618 – April 3, 1682) was a Spanish Baroque painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. His lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times. More

Guido Reni (1575–1642)
Archangel Michael, circa 1636
Oil on canvas
293 × 202 cm (115.4 × 79.5 in)
Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome

"St Michael Archangel". The Archangel Michael dressed in a late Roman military cloak and cuirass. trampling Satan.

Guido Reni (4 November 1575 – 18 August 1642) was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. Born in Bologna into a family of musicians, Guido Reni was the son of Daniele Reni and Ginevra de’ Pozzi. As a child of nine, he was apprenticed under the Bolognese studio of Denis Calvaert. When Reni was about twenty years old he migrated to the rising rival studio, named Accademia degli Incamminati (Academy of the "newly embarked", or progressives), led by Lodovico Carracci. He went on to form the nucleus of a prolific and successful school of Bolognese painters who followed Annibale Carracci to Rome. Like many other Bolognese painters, Reni's painting was thematic and eclectic in style. More

Rubens, Peter Paul, 1577-1640
The Fall of the Angels (Michael fighting Lucifer), c. 1619/22
Oil on canvas
433 x 288cm
 Alte Pinakothek museum, Munich

Drawing after the painting Fall of the Rebel Angels by Peter Paul Rubens, ca. 1768–ca. 1775; red chalk, graphite, pen and ink.

St Michael fighting the rebel angels; the struggling rebel angels vainly attempt to resist their descent into hell as various monstrous, devilish figures grapple with them; a copy after Lucas Vorsterman who engraved after Peter Paul Rubens. after 1621 Engraving. More

Bartolomé Bermejo, 1440 - after 1495
Saint Michael triumphant over the Devil with the Donor Antonio Juan, c. 1468
Oil and gold on wood
179.7 x 81.9 cm
The National Gallery, London

The kneeling donor is Antonio Juan, Lord of Tous. He holds a psalter open at two penitential Psalms (Psalms 51 and 130). The heavy chain and sword indicate that he is a knight.

Bermejo's mastery of the Netherlandish technique of painting in oil can be seen in the modelling of the donor's head, in Saint Michael's crystal shield and in the reflections of the Heavenly City on his breastplate. More

Bartolomé Bermejo (c. 1440 – c.1501) was a Spanish painter who adopted Flemish painting techniques and conventions. Although it is unclear where Bermejo received his training, his complete mastery of the oil glaze technique suggests direct contact with 15th century Flemish painting, which he was able to adapt perfectly to the demands of Spanish altarpieces of the period: large-scale retables with many panels. Though his documented career spans over thirty years, he was peripatetic: he never settled in one place for more than a decade. Also, in a period and place where painting was a business, and work was generally negotiated by contract, there is both direct and indirect evidence that he was professionally unreliable, though apparently his outstanding talent made patrons willing to take the risk. At least three major altarpieces that he undertook, the high altar retables of Santo Domingo de Silos in Daroca and Santa Anna in Barcelona, and the triptych of the Virgin of Montserrat in Valencia, were left incomplete for others to finish.

Documentation places his activity in four cities of the Crown of Aragon: Valencia (1468), Daroca (1474), Zaragoza (1477–84) and Barcelona [1486–1501). More

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640)
Fall of the Damned, c. 17th century
Oil on panel
288 × 255 cm (113.4 × 100.4 in)
Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640)
Fall of the Damned, c. 17th century
Study

Study for the Fall of the Damned; sheet of studies for two groups, in the upper half, men and women pulled down by demons, the lower half represents the group immediately to the left of the former group in the painting, with two pot-bellied men and a fat woman borne down by demons. c.1614-18 Black and red chalk, watercolour and bodycolour, on two sheets. More

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. More

To call away from earth and bring men's souls to judgment
Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem
The story of the Assyrian siege is told in the Hebrew Bible books of Isaiah. As the Assyrians began their invasion, Hezekiah began preparations to protect Jerusalem. Hezekiah gathered the citizens in the square and encouraged them by reminding them that the Assyrians possessed only "an arm of flesh", but the Judeans had the protection of Yahweh.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640)
The Defeat of Sennacherib, c. 1612 and 1614
Oil on panel
98 × 123 cm (38.6 × 48.4 in)
Alte Pinakothek, Munich

While Sennacherib was besieging Lachish, he received a message from Hezekiah offering to pay tribute in exchange for Assyrian withdrawal. Hezekiah paid three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold to Assyria — a price so heavy that he was forced to empty the temple and royal treasury. Nevertheless, Sennacherib marched on Jerusalem with his large army. 

Peter Paul Rubens, (1577–1640)
The Defeat of Sennacherib, c. 1612 and 1614
Detail
The prophet Isaiah took an active part in the political life of Judah. When Jerusalem was threatened, he assured Hezekiah that the city would be delivered and Sennacherib would fall. The Hebrew Bible states that during the night, an angel of YHWH brought death to 185,000 Assyrians troops. Jerusalem was spared destruction. More

Gillis van Valckenborch, (1570–1622)
Battle scene (Defeat of Sennacherib ?), c. 1597
Oil on canvas
135 × 270 cm (53.1 × 106.3 in)
Louvre Museum

Gillis van Valckenborch (Antwerp 1570 – Frankfurt am Main, end March or 1 April 1622) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman who spent most of his career in Germany. He was a member of the van Valckenborch dynasty of painters who painted mainly landscapes. Unlike his family members, he is mainly known for his large-scale compositions with many swirling figures depicting scenes from ancient history or mythology. While his landscape drawings evidence his interest in landscape art no landscape paintings have been attributed to him. More

Gustave Dore, 1832-1883
The angel of the Lord destroys the army of Assyrians, c 1865
Berlin, Sammlung Archiv für Kunst und Geschichte


Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (6 January 1832 – 23 January 1883) was a French artist, printmaker, illustrator and sculptor. Doré worked primarily with wood engraving.

Doré was born in Strasbourg on 6 January 1832. By age five, he was a prodigy troublemaker, playing pranks that were mature beyond his years. Seven years later, he began carving in cement. At the age of fifteen Doré began his career working as a caricaturist for the French paper Le Journal pour rire, and subsequently went on to win commissions to depict scenes from books by Rabelais, Balzac, Milton and Dante.

In 1853, Doré was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron. This commission was followed by additional work for British publishers, including a new illustrated Bible. In 1856 he produced twelve folio-size illustrations of The Legend of The Wandering Jew.

Doré's illustrations for the Bible (1866) were a great success, and in 1867 Doré had a major exhibition of his work in London. This exhibition led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in Bond Street, London. Doré was mainly celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world-renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings are where he really excelled as an artist with an individual vision.

Doré never married and, following the death of his father in 1849, he continued to live with his mother, illustrating books until his death in Paris following a short illness. The government of France made him a Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur in 1861. More

Jacopo Vignali, (1592–1664)
Archangel Michael reaching to save souls in purgatory
Oil on canvas
San Gaetano (Florence)

Jacopo Vignali (September 5, 1592 – August 3, 1664) was an Italian painter of the early Baroque period. Vignali was born in Pratovecchio, near Arezzo, and initially trained under Matteo Rosselli. He painted the ceiling fresco of the Love of the Fatherland and Jacob's dream for the Casa Buonarroti in Florence. In 1616 he entered the Accademia del Disegno in Florence. In the 1620s, he painted the Investiture of St Benedict for the Confraternità di San Benedetto Bianco. In 1622–23 he also contributed to fresco cycles for the Medici at the Casino Mediceo di San Marco in Florence, and at the Villa di Poggio Imperiale. Among his pupils were Domenico Bettini, Romolo Panfi, Alessandro Rosi, and Carlo Dolci. More

It was Michael who rescued Abraham from the furnace into which he had been thrown by Nimrod. It was Michael, the "one that had escaped", who told Abraham that Lot had been taken captive, and who protected Sarah from being defiled by Abimelech. He announced to Sarah that she would bear a son and he rescued Lot at the destruction of Sodom.

It is said that Michael prevented Isaac from being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram in his place, and saved Jacob, while yet in his mother's womb, from being killed by Samael. Later Michael prevented Laban from harming Jacob. It was Michael who wrestled with Jacob and who afterward blessed him.

Pedro García de Benabarre, (Spanish, 1445 – 1483) 
Saint Michael Archangel, c. 1470
Tempera and gold on panel
184 x 144 cm (72 7/16 x 56 11/16 in.)
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

The archangel Michael, wearing a suit of studded armor, sits on a throne backed by an elaborate blue and gold brocade. In this painting, Michael simultaneously enacts his two principal roles: weigher of souls on Judgment Day and destroyer of Satan. On the left an angel embraces a soul, while on the right, Satan appears as a fantastic two-faced monster ready to capture another soul. Michael positions his lance over the monster. This painting was originally a side panel of a large altarpiece dedicated to John the Baptist, installed in the church of Sant Joan del Mercat in Lleida, Catalonia. More

Pedro Garcia Benavarre, or Benabarre (Benabarre, Huesca 1445-1485) was a Spanish-Flemish Gothic painter active in Aragon and Catalonia. Garcia was documented in 1445 in Zaragoza in Blasco union Grañén painter, who could be his teacher and with whom he collaborated as an assistant between 1445 and 1447. This Zaragoza highlights the execution stage of the altarpiece of Villarroya of Campo. The two partners also worked at painting altarpieces for the church of the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa in Jacetania.

In 1452 he was established in Benabarre and worked on his own. From there he moved to Barcelona in 1455, hired by the widow and son of Bernat Martorell, with whom he pledged to finalize unfinished works by the master.

It is likely that the terms of the contract signed with the Martorell were not met in full. Benabarre then worked at various nearby locations. At this stage, he had contracted to paint numerous altarpieces, including his most famous works: the Virgin enthroned and four angels or Virgen de Bellcaire, from the parish church of Bellcaire d'Urgell, now at the National Museum Art de Catalunya.

By 1481 he settled in Barbastro, painting the altarpiece at the church of the convent of San Francisco. More

Icons of Archangel Michael

Master of the Icon of the Archangel Michael
Archangel Michael, c. 10th century
Enamel and gems
17 inches tall and 14 inches
St Mark's Basilica, Venice

Icon Panel of the Archangel Michael, looted from Constantinople in 1204 and now in the Treasury of St. Mark's in Venice. It is 17 inches tall and 14 inches wide.  It is made of silver-gilt, enamel, precious stones, pearls and glass and is dated to the late tenth or early eleventh centuries.  The use of such images has been debated over the years, they could have been placed in a chapel iconostasis or carried in processions. Such and icon would be appropriate in a funeral chapel or a shrine to the Archangel himself. More

Archangel Michael, c. 11th century
Gilt-silver and enamel, set with gemstones and glass.
18 inches tall and 14 inches in width
St Mark's Basilica, Venice

Icon of St. Michael the Archangel, looted from Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade and now in the Treasury of St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice. It is dated to the late 11th or early 12th centuries. It is 18 inches tall and 14 inches in width. made of gilt-silver and enamel, set with gemstones and glass. The gold cloisonne enamel work is amazing workmanship. It is impossible to know where this icon was kept in Constantinople, there are no records of its origin. Its size and opulence may mean it came from a private Imperial chapel. More

To be the champion of God's people,
Miracle of Archangel Michael at Chonae

 Archangel Michael and the monk Archippus
Commemoration of the Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Colossae
Оrthodox icon, probably of constantinopolitan origin
First half of the 12th century. 
37.5 x 30.7 cm
Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sinai (Egypt) 

In Phrygia, not far from the city of Hieropolis, in a place called Cheretopos, there was a church named for the Archangel Michael, built over a miraculous spring.

This church was built by a certain inhabitant of the city of Laodicia in gratitude to God for healing his mute daughter. The holy Chief Commander Michael appeared to this man in a dream and revealed to him that his daughter would receive the gift of speech after drinking from the water of the spring. The girl actually did receive healing and began to speak. After this miracle, the father and his daughter and all their family were baptized. In fervent gratitude, the father built the church in honor of the holy Chief Commander Michael. Not only did Christians begin to come to the spring for healing, but also pagans. In so doing, many of the pagans turned from their idols and were converted to the faith in Christ. 

Miracle of Archangel Michael at Chonae
(Novgorod, 15th Century)

Archippus served for sixty years as church custodian. With the general malice of that time towards Christians, and especially against Archippus, the pagans thought to destroy the church in order to prevent people from coming to that holy place of healing, and at the same time kill Archippus.

The Miracle of Archangel Michael at Chonae 

They made a confluence of the Lykokaperos and Kufos Rivers and directed its combined flow against the church. St Archippus prayed fervently to the Chief Commander Michael to ward off the danger. The Archangel Michael appeared at the temple, and with a blow of his staff, opened a wide fissure in a rock and commanded the rushing torrents of water to flow into it. The temple remained unharmed.  More

Artists' Information:

Note 1
Girolamo Savoldo (c. 1480-1485 – after 1548) was an Italian High Renaissance painter active mostly in Venice, although he also worked in other cities in northern Italy. He is noted for his subtle use of color and chiaroscuro, and the sober realism of his works, which are mostly religious subjects, with a few portraits, which are given interest by their accessories or settings, "some even look like extracts from larger narratives".

About 40 paintings are known in all, six of them portraits; only a handful of drawings are known. He was highly regarded in his own lifetime, and several repetitions of works were commissioned, and copies done by others. But he slipped from general awareness, and many of his works were assigned to more famous artists, especially Giorgione, by the art trade. Awareness of him revived in the 19th century, though the dating of many paintings remains controversial among specialists. More

Note 2
Andrea del Verrocchio (c. 1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was master of an important workshop in Florence. He became known by his nickname Verrocchio, from vero occhio, which in Italian means "true eye", a tribute given to him for his artistic achievement. Few paintings are attributed to him with certainty, but a number of important painters were trained at his workshop. His pupils included Leonardo da Vinci, Pietro Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi. His greatest importance was as a sculptor and his last work, the Equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, is generally accepted as a masterpiece. More

Note 3
Domenico di Michelino (1417–1491) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school and a follower of the style of Fra Angelico. He was born and died in Florence.

Michelino predominantly painted scenes from the Bible. His most famous work can be found on the west wall of Florence's "Duomo" (cathedral) Santa Maria del Fiore, including La commedia illumina Firenze ("The Comedy Illuminating Florence"), showing Dante Alighieri and the Divina Commedia (Divine Comedy). Along with Dante and the city of Florence, the work depicts Hell, Mount Purgatory, the earthly Paradise (with Adam and Eve) and the celestial spheres.

He took his name from his teacher, a carver in bone and ivory named Michelino. He was elected to the Compagnia di San Luca (painter's guild) in 1442 and joined the Arte dei Medici e degli Speziali in 1444. More

Images are copyright of their respective owners, assignees or others