Showing posts with label Magi. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Magi. Show all posts

Thursday, February 8, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! by the Old Masters, With Footnotes - 81

Luca Giordano, 1634 - 1705
The Adoration Of The Magi

This Adoration of the Magi by Luca Giordano is likely to date to 1687–89, when the artist was working in Naples before departing for Spain in 1692. Giordano’s skill in depicting a scene that incorporates such a rich panoply of figures resides in his ability to unify different elements within the composition’s broad panorama while retaining many visually arresting components and lively brushwork. More on this painting

The Adoration of the Magi (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: A Magis adoratur) is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. The Adoration of the Magi

Luca Giordano (18 October 1634 – 12 January 1705) was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain.

Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera, and his early work was heavily influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types.

He acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" (Fulmine) and "The Proteus" of painting.


Following a period studying in Rome, Parma and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences. His mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona. He is also noted for his lively and showy use of colour. More Luca Giordano








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Thursday, March 2, 2017

11 Icons, Scenes from the Bible, with footnotes, #11

PETER PAUL RUBENS (CIRCLE) Siegen 1577 - 1640 Antwerp 
THE MADONNA AND CHILD
Oil on panel
50 cm by 38.5 cm
Private collection

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. More Sir Peter Paul Rubens

Central Italian School, 16th Century
THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF SAINT CATHERINE
Oil on panel
70 x 53.5 cm.; 27 1/2  x 21 in.
Private collection

This Renaissance panel depicting the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine has thus far eluded secure attribution. The high cheek bones of the female figures' graceful physiognomies imply that the work was evidently painted by an artist closely aware of the work of Pietro Perugino, probably in central Italy, but the lively figure of Joseph also pays homage to Filippino Lippi. More about this Icon

Ambrogio Bergognone
The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria and Saint Catherine of Siena, circa 1490
Oil on poplar wood
187.5 × 129.5 cm (73.8 × 51 in)
National Gallery

The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine covers two different subjects in Christian art arising from visions received by either Saint Catherine of Alexandria or Saint Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), in which these virgin saints went through a mystical marriage wedding ceremony with Christ, in the presence of the Virgin Mary, consecrating themselves and their virginity to him.

The Catholic Encyclopaedia notes that such a wedding ceremony "is but the accompaniment and symbol of a purely spiritual grace", and that "as a wife should share in the life of her husband, and as Christ suffered for the redemption of mankind, the mystical spouse enters into a more intimate participation in His sufferings."  Catherine of Alexandria was martyred, while Catherine of Siena received the stigmata.

Both Saint Catherines are frequent subjects in Christian art; the scene usually includes one of the Saint Catherines and either the infant Jesus held by his mother or an adult Jesus. Very rarely both saints are shown in a double ceremony (as above). Saint Catherine of Alexandria is invariably dressed as a princess in rich clothes, often with a crown, and normally with loose long blonde hair and carrying a martyr's palm, sometimes with her attribute of a wheel; Saint Catherine of Siena is shown as a Dominican nun in white with a black over-robe open at the front, so it is usually easy to tell which saint is depicted. More Saint Catherine

Ambrogio Borgognone (variously known as Ambrogio da Fossano, Ambrogio di Stefano da Fossano, Ambrogio Stefani da Fossano or as il Bergognone or Ambrogio Egogni c. 1470s – 1523/1524) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period active in and near Milan.

While he was nearly contemporary with Leonardo da Vinci, he painted in a style more akin to the pre-Renaissance. The dates of his birth and death are unknown; he is said to have been born at Fossano in Piedmont and his appellation attributed to his artistic affiliation with the Burgundian school.

Ambrogio Bergognone
Madonna and Child, from 1488 until 1490
Oil on poplar wood
55.2 × 35.6 cm (21.7 × 14 in)
National Gallery

His fame is principally associated with his work at the Certosa di Pavia complex, composed of the church and convent of the Carthusians. Only one known picture, an altar-piece at the Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, can with probability be assigned to a period of his career earlier than 1486.

For two years after his return to Milan he worked at the church of San Satiro. From 1497 he was engaged in decorating with paintings the church of the Incoronata. Documentation of him thenceforth is scant. In 1508 he painted for a church in Bergamo; in 1512, his signature appears in a public document of Milan; in 1524 - and this is our last authentic record - he painted a series of frescoes illustrating the life of St. Sisinius in the portico of San Simpliciano at Milan.individuality. He holds an interesting place in the most interesting period of Italian art.

But to judge of his real powers and peculiar ideals, his system of faint and clear coloring, whether in fresco, tempera or oil; his somewhat slender and pallid types, not without something that reminds us of northern art in their Teutonic sentimentality as well as their fidelity of portraiture. More Ambrogio Borgognone

ITALIAN/BYZANTINE SCHOOL 17/18th ct. 
CAMBRAI-MADONNA 
Oil on copper 
35.5 cm by 26 cm.
Private collection

The Cambrai Madonna (or Notre-Dame de Grace) is a small c 1340 Italo-Byzantine, possibly Sienese, replica of an Eleusa (Virgin of Tenderness) icon (below). The work on which it is based is believed to have originated in Tuscany c. 1300, and influenced a wide number of paintings from the following century as well as Florentine sculptures from the 1440–1450s. This version was in turn widely copied across Italy and northern Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries; Filippo Lippi's 1447 The Madonna and Child Enthroned is a well known example.

Unknown
 Icon of the Virgin Eleousa, mid-14th c
Venice

When in 1450 the painting was brought to Cambrai, then part of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy and now in France, it was believed an original by Saint Luke, patron saint of artists, for which Mary herself had sat as model. Thus it was treated as a relic; God bestowing miracles on those that travelled to view it.

Unknown
Cambrai Madonna, circa 1340
Italo-Byzantine, possibly Sienese
Replica of an Eleusa icon.
Private collection

The work is significant beyond its aesthetic value: it serves as a bridge between the Byzantine icon tradition and the Italian Quattrocento, and inspired the work of 15th-century Netherlandish artists. After the Ottoman Turks had conquered Constantinople, copies of the painting were commissioned in the Low Countries in support of Philip the Good's projected crusade, announced at the Feast of the Pheasant but never launched. More The Cambrai Madonna

Master of the Osservanza, ACTIVE IN SIENA DURING THE SECOND QUARTER OF THE 15TH CENTURY
THE FLAGELLATION, c. 1441
Tempera and gold on poplar panel
45 x 30.5 cm.; 17 ¾  x 12 in
Private collection

The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ. It is the fourth station of the modern alternate Stations of the Cross, and a Sorrowful Mystery of the Rosary. The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi. The Basilica di Santa Prassede in Rome, claimed to possess the original column. More

The Master of the Osservanza Triptych, also known as the Osservanza Master and as the Master of Osservanza, is the name given to an Italian painter of the Sienese School active about 1430 to 1450.

Research in 2010 by Maria Falcone in Siena has revealed the name of the Master to be Sano di Pietro. Falcone found a document about an altarpiece by the “Master of Osservanza” for a church in Asciano, just outside Siena, which was actually under the bishopric of Arezzo. The priest of the church in Asciano did not pay the painter and therefore the city government of Siena had to make an appeal to the bishop in Arezzo to force the priest from his district to pay the artist. The artist’s name was included on the document as Sano di Pietro. More The Master of the Osservanza

Sano di Pietro, or Ansano di Pietro di Mencio (1406–1481) was an Italian painter of the Sienese school of painting. His career spanned from the end of the Trecento period into the Quattrocento period. His contemporaries included Giovanni di Paolo and Sassetta
Sano was born in 1406. His name enters the roll of painters in 1428 where it remained until his death in 1481. In addition to his own painting and overseeing the pupils and assistants in his workshop, he was also part of the civic fabric of Siena. There are city records showing his participation. In 1431 and 1442 he was the leader of the San Donato district of Siena (1). Sano was also employed as an arbitrator; in 1475 he was called upon to settle a dispute between fellow painters Neroccio di Bartolommeo and Francesco di Giorgio Martini (2).
It was, however, as a painter that he made his living. The workshop he ran produced huge number of artworks. Sano himself is quite interesting. He wasn't merely a painter of altar pieces. He also produced frescoes, miniatures, and book bindings. Book bindings are exquisite little paintings that went on the spine of a book. After a long and successful career Sano died in 1481. More Sano di Pietro 

Bicci di Lorenzo, FLORENCE 1373 - 1452
THE NATIVITY, c. 1423
Tempera on poplar panel, gold ground
88 x 58 cm.; 34 5/8  x 22 7/8  in.
Private collection

Bicci revisited the theme of the Nativity numerous times, always varying the poses of his figures in subtle ways.3 The design of this Nativity is most closely comparable to the central predella panel of the triptych in Sant’Ippolito, Bibbiena (Casentino), dated 1435, one of very few of Bicci’s compositions to position the manger parallel with the stable, rather than at an oblique angle. More

The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew. The two accounts agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem in the time of Herod the Great to a betrothed virgin whose name was Mary. There are, however, major differences. Matthew has no census, annunciation to the shepherds or presentation in the Temple, implies that Jesus's parents' home is Bethlehem, and has him born in a house there, and has an unnamed angel appear to Joseph to announce the birth. In Luke there are no Magi, no flight into Egypt, or Massacre of the Innocents, Joseph is a resident of Nazareth, the birth appears to take place in an inn instead of the family home, and the angel (named as Gabriel) announces the coming birth to Mary. While it is possible that Matthew's account might be based on Luke or Luke's on Matthew, the majority of scholars conclude that the two are independent of each other.

In Christian theology the nativity marks the incarnation of Jesus as the second Adam, in fulfillment of the divine will of God, undoing the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. The artistic depiction of the nativity has been a major subject for Christian artists since the 4th century. Since the 13th century, the nativity scene has emphasized the humility of Jesus and promoted a more tender image of him, as a major turning point from the early "Lord and Master" image, affecting the basic approaches of Christian pastoral ministry. More

Bicci di Lorenzo (1373–1452) was an Italian painter and sculptor, active in Florence. He was born in Florence in 1373, the son of the painter, Lorenzo di Bicci, whose workshop he joined. He married in 1418, and in 1424 was registered in the Guild of Painters at Florence. His son, Neri di Bicci was also a painter and took over the family workshop. Bicci di Lorenzo died in Florence in 1452 and was buried in Santa Maria del Carmine.

Following early work – largely frescoes – in collaboration with his father, he received a number of important commissions. Among his major works are an Enthroned Madonna; the Three Scenes from the Life of St Nicholas, and a Nativity in the church of San Giovannino dei Cavalieri in Florence. More Bicci di Lorenzo

13th Century Icon of Saint Panteleimon b. XIII c.
including scenes from his life
Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai

St Pantaleon (c. 275 Nicomedia, Died 305 Nicomedia) came from Nicomedia, near the Black Sea, in Asia. He was such a famous doctor that the Emperor himself chose him for his own doctor. Pantaleon was a Christian, but the bad influence from the pagan court caused him to give up his Christian faith entirely.

A holy priest named Hermolaos made him realize what a sin he had committed. Pantaleon listened to him, detested his sin and joined the Church once more. To make up for what he had done, he greatly desired to suffer and die for Jesus. In the meantime, he imitated Our Lord's charity by taking care of poor sick people without any charge for his medical services.

When the Emperor Diocletian began his persecution, Pantaleon at once gave away everything he owned to the poor. Not long afterwards, he was accused of being a Christian. He was given the choice of denying his Faith or being put to death. No torture could force Pantaleon to deny his Faith.

There has been strong devotion in past ages to this Saint. In the East he is called the "Great Martyr and Wonder-worker."  More

16th century work by an anonymous artist from Toledo
The Martyrdom of Saint Agathius
Martirio de San Acacio
 From Tryptich, Center Panel
111 x 82 cm
 Museo del Prado. Madrid.

Saint Agathius (died 303), also known as Achatius or Agathonas or Acacius of Byzantium, according to Christian tradition, was a Cappadocian Greek centurion of the imperial army, martyred around 304.

He was arrested for his faith on charges for being a Christian by Tribune Firmus in Perinthus, Thrace, tortured, and then brought to Byzantium (the later Constantinople), where he was scourged and beheaded, being made a martyr because he would not give up his Christian Faith. More Saint Agathius

ANTWERP SCHOOL Circa 1520/1550
ADORATION OF THE MAGI
Oil on oak panel, cradled and rounded top
89.5 cm by 57 cm 
Private collection

The Adoration of the Magi (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: A Magis adoratur) is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. More The Adoration of the Magi

The Antwerp School is a term for the artists active in Antwerp, first during the 16th century when the city was the economic center of the Low Countries, and then during the 17th century when it became the artistic stronghold of the Flemish Baroque under Peter Paul Rubens.

Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500. Painters, artists and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, which educated apprentices and guaranteed quality.  More Ecole Anversoise




Acknowledgement: Sotheby'sHargesheimer Kunstauktionen Düsseldorf

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Monday, November 14, 2016

15 Paintings, scenes from the Bible, by The Old Masters, with footnotes # 31

Follower of Pieter Coecke van Aelst (Aelst 1502-1550 Brussels)
The Adoration of the Magi 
oil on panel
37.5 x 29.4cm (14 3/4 x 11 9/16in)
Private Collection

The Adoration of the Magi (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: A Magis adoratur) is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. More

Pieter Coecke van Aelst or Pieter Coecke van Aelst the Elder (Aalst, 14 August 1502 – Brussels, 6 December 1550) was a Flemish painter, sculptor, architect, author and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. His principal subjects were Christian religious themes. He worked in Antwerp and Brussels and was appointed court painter to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Coecke van Aelst was a polyglot. He published translations of Ancient Roman and modern Italian architectural treatises into Flemish, French and German. These publications played a crucial role in spreading Renaissance ideas to the Low Countries. They contributed to the transition in Northern Europe from the late Gothic style then prevalent towards a modern 'antique-oriented' architecture. More

Arcangelo di Jacopo del Sellaio (Florence circa 1477-1530)
The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes 
tempera on linen
62.2 x 120.6cm (24 1/2 x 47 1/2in)
Private Collection

Feeding the multitude is a term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus reported in the Gospels. The first miracle, "the Feeding of the 5,000", is the only miracle (apart from Jesus' resurrection) which is recorded in all four canonical Gospels. More

Arcangelo di Jacopo del Sellaio (Florence circa 1477-1530), sometimes known as Jacopo di Arcangel,, was an eclectic Italian painter from the early Renaissance, who painted in the style of the Florentine School. He was a pupil of Fra' Filippo Lippi, with his contemporary Sandro Botticelli, who became a lasting influence on him. It is noted that by 1460, he had joined the Confraternity of Saint Luke in Florence, and in 1473, he is documented to have shared a studio with Filippo di Giuliano.

A number of da Sellaio's paintings for decorative chests survive in collections, such as his Story of Cupid and Psyche. He executed another wedding cassone, The Nerli Cassone, in collaboration with Zanobi di Domenico and Biagio d'Antonio in 1472. His piece now in the Uffizi Gallery, The Banquet of Ahasuerus, was also painted with two other panels, including Esther before Ahasuerus (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest) for a cassoni.

Da Sellaio's small devotional pieces were well known, several of which depicted Saint Jerome and Saint John the Baptist. He also painted religious works for the church of San Lucia dei Magnoli and the church of San Frediano, both in Florence. More

Jacob Jordaens, (Flemish, Antwerp 1593–1678 Antwerp)
The Holy Family with Saint Anne and the Young John the Baptist and His Parents
Oil on wood
66 7/8 x 59 in. (169.9 x 149.9 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Jordaens frequently revised his own paintings after many years, as he did here. The Christ Child, Mary and Joseph, the Virgin’s mother Saint Anne, and probably a version of the infant Saint John the Baptist were depicted as a close family gathering in the early 1620s. At least twenty-five years later the artist added boards to the oak panel and painted the Baptist’s parents, Saints Elizabeth and Zacharias, and an angel on the left. Their more painterly style contrasts with the Caravaggesque modeling of the earlier figures. The cartouche, inscribed "If the root be holy, so are the branches" (from Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Romans) was added during the second stage of work. The shift from intimate to didactic presentation is typical of Jordaens’s late work. More

Jacob Jordaens (19 May 1593 – 18 October 1678) was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day. Unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few short trips to locations in the Low Countries, he remained in Antwerp his entire life. As well as being a successful painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Like Rubens, Jordaens painted altarpieces, mythological, and allegorical scenes, and after 1640—the year Rubens died—he was the most important painter in Antwerp for large-scale commissions and the status of his patrons increased in general. However, he is best known today for his numerous large genre scenes based on proverbs in the manner of his contemporary Jan Brueghel the Elder, depicting The King Drinks and As the Old Sing, So Pipe the Young. Jordaens' main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. More

Circle of Adriaen van der Werff (Kralinger Ambach 1659-1722 Rotterdam)
The Holy Family with Saint Anne 
oil on canvas
122 x 96cm (48 1/16 x 37 13/16in)
Private Collection

Adriaen van der Werff (21 January 1659 – 12 November 1722) was an accomplished Dutch painter of portraits and erotic, devotional and mythological scenes. His brother, Pieter van der Werff (1661–1722), was his principal pupil and assistant.

At the age of ten he started to take lessons, two years later moving in with Eglon van der Neer, specializing in clothes and draperie. At the age of seventeen he founded his own studio in Rotterdam where he later became the head of guild of Saint Luc. In 1696. 1703, he became the official court painter and a knight, when his former teacher and predecessor Van der Neer died. Van der Werff, with a perfect technique, was paid extremely well by the Elector for his biblical or classical (erotic) paintings. In 1705. In 1716, he lost his job when the Elector died because the treasury was empty.

Van der Werff became one of the most lauded Dutch painters of his day, gaining a European reputation and an enormous fortune. Arnold Houbraken, writing in 1718, considered him the greatest of the Dutch painters and this was the prevailing critical opinion throughout the 18th century: however, his reputation suffered in the 19th century, when he was alleged to have betrayed the Dutch naturalistic tradition. In the Victorian Age people could not appreciate his art, so most of his work went into the cellars of the Alte Pinakothek. More

François Guillaume Ménageot (French, London 1744–1816 Paris)
The Virgin Placing St. Teresa of Avila Under the Protection of St. Joseph, c. 1787
Oil paint over pen and brown ink, on paper, mounted on canvas
20 1/2 x 12 3/16 in. (52 x 31 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada (28 March 1515 – 4 October 1582), was a Spanish nun, mystic and writer during the Counter-Reformation. Some sources suggest that as a girl, Theresa was willful and spoiled, and chose to enter the Carmelite sisterhood instead of marrying a wealthy hidalgo based on the mistaken belief that as a nun she would be afforded more freedom.
Upon entering the convent aged 19, Theresa became seriously ill (she has now become a patron saint for the infirm), possibly depressed and subjecting her body to self-mutilation.
By the time she reached her forties, Theresa had settled down to her new spiritual life, when one day, while praying and singing the hymn "Veni Creator Spiritus," she experienced the first of the episodes that would accompany her for the rest of her life: a rapture.
In her writings, Theresa describes how she would feel suddenly consumed by the love of God, feel the bodily presence of Christ or of angels, and be lifted to an exalted state of ecstasy. Although in her own lifetime Theresa was sometimes ridiculed for such claims, or even accused of communing with the devil, she became a prominent figure in the church. Theresa was one of only three female church doctors and was finally canonized in 1622.
In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV, and on 27 September 1970 was named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI. Her books, which include her autobiography (The Life of Teresa of Jesus) and her seminal work El Castillo Interior (The Interior Castle), are an integral part of Spanish Renaissance literature as well as Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practices.
A Santero image (Santo image) of the Immaculate Conception of El Viejo, said to have been sent with one of her brothers to Nicaragua by the saint, is now venerated as the country's national patroness at the Shrine of El Viejo. More

Unknown
Santa Teresa de Jesus
Discalced Carmelites. Jaén

The Discalced Carmelites or Barefoot Carmelites is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. (Discalced is derived from Latin, meaning "without shoes".) The order was established in 1593, pursuant to the reform of the Carmelite Order of the Ancient Observance by two Spanish saints, Saint Teresa of Ávila and Saint John of the Cross. More

François-Guillaume Ménageot (1744–1816) was a French painter of religious and French historical scenes. A pupil of François Boucher (1703–1770), he went on to win the Grand Prix de Rome and become a director of the French Academy in Rome, an academician and a member of the Institute.

Ménageot was born in London, the son of an art dealer. He trained under first Jean-Baptiste-Henri Deshays, then Joseph-Marie Vien, and finally François Boucher (1703–1770).  His 1766 Tomyris Plunging the Head of Cyrus into a Bowl of Blood won the Prix de Rome and a stay at the French Academy in Rome from 1769 to 1774.


The Académie Royale in Paris approved François-Guillaume as a history painter in 1777, and he then exhibited The Farewells of Polyxena to Hecuba at the Salon, and it received a good reception, as did his entrance piece Learning Resisting the Passage of Time and his 1781 Death of Leonardo da Vinci in the Arms of Francis I.. He and other painters led French painting to return to the Grand Style, with more horizontal compositions, more sculptural drapery, colder colouring and set in ever more monumental architecture. He died in Paris. More


After Jacopo da Ponte, called Jacopo Bassano, 19th Century
The Departure for Canaan 
Oil on canvas
38.2 x 52cm (15 1/16 x 20 1/2in)
Private Collection

Genesis 12:1. Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from your father's house, To the land which I will show you;  And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing;…"

Jacopo da Ponte, called Bassano (1510-1592) was born in Bassano del Grappa. His father, Francesco da Ponte, was also a painter and influenced the style of the young Bassano. Bassano lived and worked, at least temporarily, in Venice. Here he studied the works of his fellow painters Bonifazio, Titian, Tintoretto and Veronese. He painted a large number of Christian themes, but also animals and genre motifs emerged in large numbers. His works were characterized especially by his lucid colors. He ran a workshop where four of his sons, trained by himself, participated. Bassano was one of the most influential Venetian painters of the 16th century. More

Govert Flinck (1615-1660)
Bathsheba with David's letter
116.8 x 88.6 cm
Oil on canvas
Hermitage, St. Petersburg

Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah, a general of King David's army. The king, upon seeing Bathsheba bathing, had her summoned, and led her into adultery. In this works, the artist focuses his representation of the episode on Bathsheba at her bath. She is portrayed deeply disturbed by the royal message. More

Govert Flinck, (born January 25, 1615, Kleve, Brandenburg [Germany]—died February 2, 1660, Amsterdam, Dutch Republic [now in the Netherlands]) Baroque painter of portraits, genre, and narrative subjects, one of Rembrandt’s most-accomplished followers.

Flinck first studied in Leeuwarden and later entered Rembrandt’s studio. As a painter of biblical and allegorical subjects, he at first modeled his style closely on Rembrandt’s. Later he developed a more florid and oratorical manner, in which he appears to have been influenced by Peter Paul Rubens. Flinck’s most successful works were portraits, and he was especially successful in his group portraits. More

Circle of Francisco Rizi de Guevara (Madrid 1614-1685 El Escorial)
The Adoration of the Magi 
Oil on canvas
166.2 x 125.1cm (65 7/16 x 49 1/4in).
Private Collection

The Adoration of the Magi, see above

Francisco Rizi de Guevara ( Madrid , 1614- San Lorenzo de El Escorial , 1685) was a Spanish Baroque painter, son of Antonio Ricci, an Italian artist who came to Spain to work on the decoration of the monastery of El Escorial under the orders of Federico Zuccaro , and brother of painter Fray Juan Rizi .

de Guevara was an apprentice of Vicente Carducho and highlights. This training is manifested in some of his early works, but soon distanced himself from his teacher due to his strong sense of dynamism and gestural expressiveness, and opulent baroque style, that are characteristic features of the Madrid school of painting, which he himself was one of the main representatives and teacher. More

Lombard School, late 16th Century
The Assumption of the Virgin 
Oil on canvas
150.6 x 207.6cm (59 5/16 x 81 3/4in).
Private Collection

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven, often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, was the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life. More

Lombard School was a school of art (architecture, stone carving, and painting) in Northern Italy. Lombard architecture developed from the eighth to tenth centuries. The establishment of Christianity as the Lombards’ official religion fostered the rise of an independent school of architecture that played a decisive role in the development of the Romanesque style in Italy. More

German School, 19th Century
Saint Catherine of Alexandria
Oil on panel 
116.6 x 57.1cm (45 7/8 x 22 1/2in).
Private Collection

Saint Catherine of Alexandria is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of fourteen, and converted hundreds of people to Christianity. She was martyred around the age of 18. Over 1,100 years following her martyrdom, St. Joan of Arc identified Catherine as one of the Saints who appeared to her and counselled her.

The Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr, and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November (depending on the local tradition). In the Catholic Church she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar;[4] however, she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November. More

German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.

Germany has only been united into a single state since the 19th century, and defining its borders has been a notoriously difficult and painful process. For earlier periods German art often effectively includes that produced in German-speaking regions including Austria, Alsace and much of Switzerland, as well as largely German-speaking cities or regions to the east of the modern German borders. More

Florentine School, 16th Century
The Madonna and Child 
Oil on panel
65 x 49.6cm (25 9/16 x 19 1/2in).
Private Collection

Florentine painting or the Florentine School refers to artists in, from, or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in Florence in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of Western painting. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine school, including other arts, are Filippo Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Lippi, Masolino, and Masaccio. More

Circle of Luis de Morales, (Badajoz circa 1509-1586)
Saint Francis 
Oil on panel
48.2 x 12.4cm (19 x 4 7/8in).
Private Collection

Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 3 October 1226),[1][3] was an Italian Roman Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis and the Custody of the Holy Land. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.
In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. In 1224, he received the stigmata, during the apparition of Seraphic angels in a religious ecstasy making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. More

Luis de Morales (1512 – 9 May 1586) was a Spanish painter born in Badajoz, Extremadura. Known as "El Divino", most of his work was of religious subjects, including many representations of the Madonna and Child and the Passion.

Influenced, especially in his early work, by Raphael Sanzio and the Lombard school (fr) school of Leonardo, he was called by his contemporaries "The Divine Morales", because of his skill and the shocking realism of his paintings, and because of the spirituality transmitted by all his work.

His work has been divided by critics into two periods, an early stage under the influence of Florentine artists such as Michelangelo and a more intense, more anatomically correct later period similar to German and Flemish Renaissance painters. More

German School, early 17th Century
The Lamentation of Christ, c. 1604
Oil on panel
42.2 x 43cm (16 5/8 x 16 15/16in).
Private Collection

The Lamentation of Christ is a very common subject in Christian art from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. After Jesus was crucified, his body was removed from the cross and his friends mourned over his body. This event has been depicted by many different artists.

Lamentation works are very often included in cycles of the Life of Christ, and also form the subject of many individual works. One specific type of Lamentation depicts only Jesus' mother Mary cradling his body. These are known as Pietà (Italian for "pity") More

German School, see above

Flemish School, 16th Century
The Flight into Egypt 
oil on copper
17 x 22.6cm (6 11/16 x 8 7/8in)
Private Collection

The flight into Egypt is a biblical event described in the Gospel of Matthew in which Joseph fled to Egypt with Mary and infant son Jesus after a visit by Magi because they learned that King Herod intended to kill the infants of that area. The episode is frequently shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art, and was a common component in cycles of the Life of the Virgin as well as the Life of Christ.

When the Magi came in search of Jesus, they go to Herod the Great in Jerusalem and ask where to find the newborn "King of the Jews". Herod becomes paranoid that the child will threaten his throne, and seeks to kill him. Herod initiates the Massacre of the Innocents in hopes of killing the child. But an angel appears to Joseph and warns him to take Jesus and his mother into Egypt.

Egypt was a logical place to find refuge, as it was outside the dominions of King Herod, but both Egypt and Israel were part of the Roman Empire, linked by a coastal road known as "the way of the sea", making travel between them easy and relatively safe. More

Flemish School, see above

Acknowledgement: Bonhams,

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