Friday, March 16, 2018

07 Icons, RELIGIOUS ART - Icons from the Bible, with footnotes - 5

Lorenzo di Bicci (c. 1350 – 1427)
tempera on panel, gold ground, pointed tops
central panel: 73.9 by 39.8 cm.; 29 by 15 5/8  in.
wings, each: 56.4 by 13.5 cm.; 22 1/8  by 5 1/2  in

The arrangement and combination of subjects in this devotional triptych were common throughout the Florentine Trecento and early Quattrocento, a tried and tested formula which found its origin in Bernardo Daddi's Bigallo Triptych of 1333, in the Museo del Bigallo, Florence. The left wing depicts the Nativity; the right wing shows the Crucifixion. The pinnacles above each wing form a single narrative representing the Annunciation. At centre, below a blessing Christ, the Virgin sits on a Gothic throne, adorned with a red and gold cloth of honour. A corporeal Christ Child sits upon her lap and, with an innovative gesture of tenderness, clutches her finger. Surrounding them are a group of six saints, which include John the Baptist and John the Evangelist.

Lorenzo di Bicci (c. 1350 – 1427) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school, traditional in outlook. He is believed to have learned his trade from his father, about whom little other than his name, Bicci, is known. By 1370, Lorenzo was a member of the Guild of Saint Luke, the painters' guild of Florence. Lorenzo's earliest documented work, Saint Martin Enthroned, dates from 1380 and is now in the Depositi Galleria Arte in Florence. More

Cola di Petruccioli da Orvieto
signed lower centre: COLA DE URBIUETERI / PINXIT
tempera on poplar panel, gold ground with a shaped top
64.3 by 32 cm.; 25 1/4  by 12 5/8  in

The present work has a decorated gable featuring a small depiction of The Crucifixion contained within a roundel supported by three angels; Cola acknowledges the predestined scene of Christ’s suffering in his representation of a small bird flying away from the Christ Child, yet tethered to his finger by a fine thread. Since pagan antiquity the motif of the bird has signified the soul of a man that flies away at his death – a meaning that is retained in Christian iconography. 

Saint Mustiola was first identified in this painting by Roberto Longhi in 1962.6 Saint Mustiola was the patron saint of Chiusi, an Umbrian town only fifty kilometres from Orvieto and Perugia. Her cult is strongly linked with the cult of the Santo Anello (the holy quartz ring that Saint Joesph is said to have given the Virgin Mary upon their marriage) which had been kept at different locations in Chiusi, at one time alongside the remains of the Saint. Longhi speculates that the inclusion of Saint Mustiola in the present work might indicate that it was commissioned by a patron from Chiusi.

Cola di Petruccioli, a native of Orvieto, was first recorded as the author of a fresco of The Crucifixion, signed and dated 1380, in the crypt under the tribune of the Duomo in Orvieto. Cola is known to have been one of several pupils working under Ugolino di Prete Ilario, the first well-known figure in the school of Orvieto, who was charged with much of the decoration of the Duomo between 1372–78. Ugliono appears to have been significantly influenced by the Sienese master Luca di Tommé and indeed documentation exists that confirms Luca’s presence in Orvieto at this time, and Ugolino’s acquaintance with him. Since Sienese masters such as Luca di Tommé travelled to neighbouring towns and often far further into the Italian peninsular, the particular artistic style of the Sienese that had developed from the radical and progressive works of masters such as Giotto and Simone Martini (who himself had worked in Orvieto around 1320), had an influence that extended far beyond Siena’s own city walls. 

Here, in Cola’s enthroned Madonna and Child, we see proof of that influence on a charming, provincial Umbrian artist. Bernard Berenson was the first to endeavour to define Petruccioli's œuvre, and was able to give a name to this new small body of work on the basis of a signed diptych, at that time in the Spello Library and now in the Pinacoteca Communale, Spello. The two Spello panels represent The Coronation of the Virgin and The Crucifixion. As in the present work, the pinnacles of the Spello panels are separated from the lower part by an ornamentation in relief, and the gables above depict the Annunciation. For Berenson, the common indicators of Cola’s style were ‘the saucy female faces, with their pointed little noses, sensitive mouths, and mad eyes, […] their quaint piquancy gave me pleasure.’ The present work is, like the Spello diptych, a rare signed example by Cola. In this panel he signs his name COLA DE URBIUETERI, 'Urbiueteri' being the Latin name for the town of Orvieto, providing us with primary evidence of Cola's origin.

Jacopo di Cione
tempera on panel, gold ground, arched top
162 by 68.5 cm.; 63 3/4  by 27 in

The Madonna and Child are here shown together with the three Theological Virtues: Faith with a cross and chalice, Hope, with hands joined in prayer, and Charity, shown with a flaming heart and cornucopia. They are shown together with the four Cardinal Virtues: Prudence, with a sphere and a wand, Justice with the traditional symbols of scales and a sword, Temperance with two vases, and Fortitude, who holds a bow and a column. They are joined by the additional figure of Humility, who holds a lighted candle. Though not accorded a formal position among the Virtues, Humility was usually linked to Temperance in terms of importance to spiritual growth.

Jacopo di Cione was the younger brother of Andrea (Orcagna) and Nardo di Cione, and was admitted to the Arte dei Medici e Speziali in Florence in January of 1369, although he had probably been active for some years before that date. Following the deaths of his brothers in 1366 and 1368, he took over the running of the family workshop, which he continued until his own death thirty years later. In 1368, for example, he took over Orcagna's Saint Matthew altarpiece for Orsanmichele (Florence, Uffizi), which had been left unstarted. The magnificent polyptych commissioned for the Albizzi family for the high altar of San Pier Maggiore, documented to 1370–71 (principal panels now London, National Gallery), together with a Coronation of the Virgin of 1373, commissioned by the Mint in Florence and now in the Gallerie dell'Accademia2 there, together form the basis for the reconstruction of his œuvre. Both are thought to have been completed in collaboration with Niccolò di Pietro Gerini (c. 1340–1414), whose contribution to Jacopo's most prestigious commissions seems to have been important.

Alesso di Benozzo, ('Maestro Esiguo') (1473 in Florence – 1528)
tempera on panel
33.8 by 24.6 cm.; 13 1/4  by 9 3/4  in.

The composition of the present work may be associated with Benozzo's own Mystic Marriage of St Catherine in Terni and his Madonna of Humility with Sts Mary Magdalene and Martha in Berlin (now destroyed). Both those works show the Christ child bénissant seated on his mother's lap, before a cloth of honour held aloft by two angels. In the ex-Berlin painting the angels are particularly close to those here.

Alesso di Benozzo (1473 in Florence – 1528) was an Italian painter, son of Benozzo Gozzoli. He is mainly known for works, along with his brothers Gerolamo and Francesco, they completed in collaboration with their father. He painted an Annunciation now in New York. He is different from the contemporary painter Alesso Baldovinetti. Bennozo himself is sometimes called Benozzo di Lese (Alesso) after his father Lese.

After 1495, Benozzo was invited to Pistoia, by his son Francesco. There, along with Alesso and Gerolamo painted various works, including an incomplete Maestà for the Palazzo Comunale More

Girolamo di Benvenuto, 1347 - 1380
SIENA 1470 - 1524
tempera on panel, gold ground
82.4 by 64.2 cm.; 32 1/2  by 25 1/4  in.

Striking parallels can be drawn between this work and a group of late works by the artist, which shows the Madonna and Child enthroned and surrounded by saints. The rosy-cheeked and sweet-faced Virgin turned to three-quarters in the present work is extremely close to both that in the Bagatti-Valsecchi altarpiece and another work from this period, a panel in the Landesgalerie, Hannover, showing the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine. These three works are evidence of the enrichment of Girolamo's style through the influence of Bernardino Fungai, something particularly visible in the docile figures, greater spatial awareness and decorative sensibility in the use of colour and treatment of drapery.

Saint Catherine of Siena, T.O.S.D. (March 25 1347 in Siena – April 29 1380 in Rome), was a tertiary of the Dominican Order and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian. She also worked to bring the papacy of Gregory XI back to Rome from its displacement in France and to establish peace among the Italian city-states. Since 18 June 1939, she is one of the two patron saints of Italy, together with St. Francis of Assisi. More

John the Baptist was the son of Zachary, a priest of the Temple in Jerusalem, and Elizabeth, a kinswoman of Mary who visited her. He was probably born at Ain-Karim southwest of Jerusalem after the Angel Gabriel had told Zachary that his wife would bear a child even though she was an old woman. He lived as a hermit in the desert of Judea until about A.D. 27. When he was thirty, he began to preach on the banks of the Jordan against the evils of the times and called men to penance and baptism "for the Kingdom of Heaven is close at hand". He attracted large crowds, and when Christ came to him, John recognized Him as the Messiah and baptized Him, saying, "It is I who need baptism from You". When Christ left to preach in Galilee, John continued preaching in the Jordan valley. Fearful of his great power with the people, Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Perea and Galilee, had him arrested and imprisoned at Machaerus Fortress on the Dead Sea when John denounced his adultrous and incestuous marriage with Herodias, wife of his half brother Philip. John was beheaded at the request of Salome, daughter of Herodias, who asked for his head at the instigation of her mother. John inspired many of his followers to follow Christ when he designated Him "the Lamb of God," among them Andrew and John, who came to know Christ through John's preaching. John is presented in the New Testament as the last of the Old Testament prophets and the precursor of the Messiah. His feast day is June 24th and the feast for his beheading is August 29th. More

Girolamo di Benvenuto (September 1470 - June 1524) was an Italian painter of the High Renaissance and son of the painter Benvenuto di Giovanni. He was born and died in Siena. Learning the basics of art under his father's watchful supervision and trained in the traditional Sienese style of painting (he was a contemporary of Giacomo Pacchiarotti, Bernardino Fungai and Pinturicchio), he worked on several frescoes and altarpieces undertaken by his father's studio. His first independent work, The Assumption of Mary of 1498 for the city of Montalcino (whose museum still holds it), Girolamo shows several differences to his father's style, with more elongated figures with more pronounced expressions.

His most notable work, signed and dated to 1508, is his Madonna of the Snow, now in the Pinacoteca in Siena. It echoes two female portraits painted by him at about the same time (one in the National Gallery of Art, Washington). Surviving documents and works show he mainly produced religious works, but also created paintings on secular themes for domestic settings and cassoni - the latter include his Judgement of Paris tondo (intended for a bedroom and now in the Louvre). More

Workshop of Alessandro Filipepi, called Sandro Botticelli
FLORENCE 1445 - 1510
tempera on panel, marouflaged, a tondo
diameter: 86.5 cm.; 34 in.

Sandro Botticelli painted some of his most celebrated images of the Madonna and Child in the circular format of the tondo. In terms of treatment, subject and setting, this particular composition, which exists in more than one variant, is characteristic of his production of the 1480s, yet no prototype by the artist is known. The central motif of the Madonna del latte is relatively uncommon in Botticelli’s work. The prime example is the altarpiece now at the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, originally painted for the Bardi Chapel of the Church of Santo Spirito in Florence, datable to 1485, but other smaller-scale works designed for domestic settings also exist.

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli  (c. 1445[1] – May 17, 1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later in his Vita of Botticelli as a "golden age". Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.

Among Botticelli's best-known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera. More

John Aitchison CBE RSA RA (1926 – 2009)
Nativity and Angels
16.02 X 11.97 in (40.7 X 30.4 cm)
oil on canvas

John Ronald Craigie Aitchison CBE RSA RA (13 January 1926 – 21 December 2009) was a Scottish painter.[1] He was best known for his many paintings of the Crucifixion,[2] one of which hangs behind the altar in the chapter house of Liverpool Cathedral,[3] Italian landscapes, and portraits (mainly of black men, or of dogs). His simple style with bright, childlike colours defied description, and was compared to the Scottish Colourists, primitivists or naive artists, although Brian Sewell dismissed him as "a painter of too considered trifles".

His career-long fascination with the crucificion was triggered by a visit to see Salvador Dalí's Christ of St John of the Cross in 1951 after it was acquired by the Kelvingrove Gallery. More

Acknowledgement: Old Master & British Paintings

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible!, With Footnotes - 95

Giovanni Biliverti, (1585–1644)
The Archangel Raphael Refusing Tobias's Gift, c. 1612
Oil on canvas
Height: 175 cm (68.9 in). Width: 146 cm (57.5 in).
Pitti Palace

The subject comes from the Book of Tobit , one of the Apocryphal books in the Old Testament, and shows the final scene in the story of how Tobit, a blind old man, was healed by the gall of a fish. This fish had been caught by his son Tobias on the orders of the Archangel Raphael. But Raphael presented himself to Tobit's family as a simple traveller, and the old man wished to thank him in the fullness of his joy at the return of his sight. The angel refused all the offered treasures and revealed his identity. More on this painting

In Biliverti's painting Tobias restrains the angel, pulling at the edge of his cloak, and begs him to take the treasures which they have taken out of a round bronze vessel. Full of colour, this large canvas reveals the artist's skill at painting texture - the fabrics, fur and particularly the heavy gold chain with its large pearls.

Giovanni Biliverti,  (Florence, 25 August 1585 – Florence, 16 July 1644) was an Italian painter of the late-Mannerism and early-Baroque period, active mainly in his adoptive city of Florence, as well as Rome. Biliverti was born as Jan Bilevelt. After his father’s death in 1603, Giovanni worked in the studio of Lodovico Cigoli, following him in April 1604 till 1607 to Rome. There he worked in projects approved by Pope Clement VIII.

In 1609 Bilivert joined the Medici-sponsored guild of artists, the Accademia del Disegno in Florence. Bilivert was employed by Cosimo II de' Medici from 1611 until 1621, as a designer for works in pietra durai. Late in life, he became blind. Among his pupils were Cecco Bravo, Agostino Melissi, Baccio del Bianco, and Orazio Fidani. He painted a Hagar in the Desert once in the Hermitage and a Christ and the Samaritan Woman once in the Belvedere in Vienna. More on Giovanni Biliverti

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Saturday, March 10, 2018

01 Work, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! from the SPANISH GOLDEN AGE, With Footnotes - 87

Juan Carreño De Miranda
Saint Anthony Of Padua With The Christ Child
Spanish Gallery at Bishop Auckland

Until its recent acquisition for the Spanish Gallery at Bishop Auckland, this archetypal image of Saint Anthony had been in the collection of the Marquises de Legarda, Spain, for over three centuries. With remarkable painterly fluency Carreño expresses the belief in a personal relationship with Christ through the example of Saint Anthony of Padua, depicted here with the Christ Child at the crowning moment of his spiritual life. In composition and colouring the picture owes as much to the Baroque style of Rubens and other Flemish artists so admired by Carreño as it does to the painterly quality of the Venetians. More on this painting

Saint Anthony of Padua (Portuguese: Santo António), born Fernando Martins de Bulhões (1195 – 13 June 1231), also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his forceful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, and undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was the second-most-quickly canonized saint after Peter of Verona. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is also the patron saint of lost things. More on Saint Anthony of Padua

Juan Carreño de Miranda (25 March 1614 — 3 October 1685) was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period.

Born in Avilés in Asturias. His family moved to Madrid in 1623, where he trained in Madrid during the late 1620s as an apprentice to Pedro de las Cuevas and Bartolomé Román. He came to the notice of Velázquez for his work in the cloister of Doña María de Aragón and in the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, La Joyosa. In 1658 Carreño was hired as an assistant on a royal commission to paint frescoes in the Alcázar of Madrid; later destroyed in a fire in 1734. In 1671. Upon the death of Sebastián de Herrera, he was appointed court painter to the queen and began to paint primarily portraits. He refused to be knighted in the order of Santiago, saying Painting needs no honors. 

Noble by descent, he had an understanding of the workings and psychology of the royal court as no painter before him, making his portraits of the Spanish royal family in an unprecedented documentary fashion. More on Juan Carreño de Miranda

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Friday, March 9, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! from the SPANISH GOLDEN AGE, With Footnotes - 86

Luis Tristán De Escamilla
The Penitent Magdalene
Private collection

As the preeminent painter of his generation in Toledo, Tristán achieved an expressive intensity in his art that reconciled the extreme mannerism of El Greco, in whose workshop he had trained, with the strong naturalism of seventeenth-century tenebrist painting. The Penitent Magdalene is among the best examples of Tristán’s work as the penitent’s rough hands and unidealised figure appear life-like, depicted in fluidly applied warm tones. A scene of intense repentance and devotion, this painting was probably intended as a work for private worship. More on this painting

Luis Tristán de Escamilla, also Luis Rodríguez Tristán (1586–1624), was a Spanish painter. Tristán was born and died in Toledo. He became an assistant of El Greco between 1603 and 1607; Tristán's later works were influenced by his master. One of his most important paintings is an altar image in the church of Yepes (1616) as well as The Adoration of the Magi (now at the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest), San Luis repartiendo limosna (now at the Louvre) and La ronda del pan y del huevo (Museo de Santa Cruz), Toledo. More on Luis Tristán de Escamilla

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Wednesday, March 7, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - CONTEMPORARY & 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - 18

Julian Schnabel, Born in 1951, 1975–1979.
St. Sebastian
Oil, wax, modelling paste on canvas
281.9 x 167.6 cm
Oko Gallery

Saint Sebastian (died c. 288 AD) was an early Christian saint and martyr. Sebastian had prudently concealed his faith, but in 286 was detected. Diocletian reproached him for his betrayal, and he commanded him to be led to a field and there to be bound to a stake so that archers from Mauritania would shoot arrows at him. "And the archers shot at him till he was as full of arrows as an urchin is full of pricks, and thus left him there for dead." Miraculously, the arrows did not kill him.

Sebastian later stood by a staircase where the emperor was to pass and harangued Diocletian for his cruelties against Christians. This freedom of speech, and from a person whom he supposed to have been dead, greatly astonished the emperor; but, recovering from his surprise, he gave orders for his being seized and beat to death with cudgels, and his body thrown into the common sewer. A pious lady, called Lucina, admonished by the martyr in a vision, got it privately removed, and buried it in the catacombs at the entrance of the cemetery of Calixtus, where now stands the Basilica of St. Sebastian. More St. Sebastian

Julian Schnabel (born October 26, 1951) is an American painter and filmmaker. In the 1980s, Schnabel received international media attention for his large-scale paintings set on broken ceramic plates.

Schnabel directed Before Night Falls, which became Javier Bardem's breakthrough Academy Award-nominated role, and The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, which was nominated for four Academy Awards.

He has won the award for best director at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival, a Golden Globe, as well as BAFTA, a César Award, two nominations for the Golden Lion and an Academy Award nomination.

Born in Brooklyn, New York, he moved with his family to Brownsville, Texas in 1965.

Schnabel's style is characterised by very large scale paintings. He uses diverse materials such as plaster, wax, photographs, antlers, velvet and ceramics. His paintings make use of canvas, wood, muslin and even surfboards. His paintings often combine abstract and figurative elements. Due to the size, weight and depth of his works, they are often given sculptural properties. More on Julian Schnabel

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02 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - CONTEMPORARY & 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - 17

JODY CARIOLANO, (American/Texas b. 1951)
Oil and mixed media on canvas, a diptych
59 3/4" x 48"
Private Collection

The Pietà is a subject in Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus, most often found in sculpture. As such, it is a particular form of the Lamentation of Christ, a scene from the Passion of Christ found in cycles of the Life of Christ. When Christ and the Virgin are surrounded by other figures from the New Testament, the subject is strictly called a Lamentation in English, although Pietà is often used for this as well, and is the normal term in Italian. More the Pietà

JODY CARIOLANO, unfortunately, I have been unable to find any meaningful information about the artist!

JODY CARIOLANO (American/Texas b. 1951)
Assumption #2
Oil on canvas
48" x 48"
Private Collection

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven. When Jesus died on the cross, he gave his mother to his apostle John. That means that he wanted Mary to treat John as her son, and John to treat Mary as his mother and take care of her. Mary moved into John's home, where he said Mass each day. So Mary was close to her Son in the Blessed Sacrament, even though He had ascended into Heaven. 

Mary's love for God and Jesus grew even stronger than it had been when Jesus had been present on earth. She grew more holy every day. People came to visit her, she was kind and patient with everyone. Saint Luke (who wrote the Gospel of Saint Luke) painted a picture of her during this time. The portrait of 'Our Lady of Perpetual Help" which was painted centuries later, used Saint Luke's portrait as a model of what Mary looked like. 

Finally when she was very old, it was time for Mary to die. She had enough time to say goodbye to all the apostles before she died. The grieving apostles took her body to a tomb near the one that Jesus was laid in. They covered her with a white shroud and laid her to rest in the tomb. 

But Mary's body didn't stay there. Jesus came to her and took her body and soul into heaven to be with Him. Mary was the Immaculate Conception - the only person except Jesus who had been born without the stain of Original Sin,the disobedience of Adam and Eve. God and Jesus would not let the body of the Mother of God decay. This was her reward for her love of God and her years of faithful prayers and suffering. More on the Assumption of Mary into Heaven

JODY CARIOLANO, unfortunately, I have been unable to find any meaningful information about the artist!

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Friday, February 23, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - CONTEMPORARY & 20th Century Interpretation of the Bible! With Footnotes - 19

Kasia Derwinska, Spain
Size: 15.7 H x 15.7 W x 0 in

Kasia Derwinska "Photography is my way of communicating with the world. In my work, I talk about own experiences, thoughts, doubts, fears and hopes trying to reflect my own life's path. In addition to my experiences, my creations are inspired by night dreams as since childhood I remember most of them and I believe that dreams are the most simbolic language of our subconscious, a guide to navigate in the modern world. I am autodidactic and I don´t recognize myself as a photographer. I use photography as a tool, like a brush for painting or an instrument to play music. My work is an attempt to connect substantiality of the world that surrounds us with elusiveness of feelings and thoughts. For that reason I describe my creations as building a bridge between the visible and the invisible. My works are divided in four basic series: fairytales and fantasies, conceptual black and white, night dreams, and the color serie called "who sings, frightens away his fears"  More on Kasia Derwinska

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01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible!, With Footnotes - 94

Sir Francis Bernard Dicksee, KCVO PRA (1853 – 1928) 
Paolo and Francesca, c. 1894
Oil on canvas
130 × 130 cm (51.2 × 51.2 in)
Private Collection

Francesca da Rimini or Francesca da Polenta (1255–ca. 1285) was the daughter of Guido da Polenta, lord of Ravenna. She was a historical contemporary of Dante Alighieri, who portrayed her as a character in the Divine Comedy.

Daughter of Guido I da Polenta of Ravenna, Francesca was wedded in or around 1275 to the brave, yet crippled Giovanni Malatesta. The marriage was a political one; Guido had been at war with the Malatesta family, and the marriage of his daughter to Giovanni was a way to solidify the peace that had been negotiated between the Malatesta and the Polenta families. While in Rimini, she fell in love with Giovanni’s younger (and still hale) brother, Paolo. Though Paolo too was married, they managed to carry on an affair for some ten years, until Giovanni ultimately surprised them in Francesca's bedroom sometime between 1283 and 1286, killing them both. 

In the first volume of The Divine Comedy, Dante and Virgil meet Francesca and her lover Paolo in the second circle of hell, reserved for the lustful. Here, the couple is trapped in an eternal whirlwind, doomed to be forever swept through the air just as they allowed themselves to be swept away by their passions. Dante calls out to the lovers, who are compelled to briefly pause before him, and he speaks with Francesca. She obliquely states a few of the details of her life and her death, and Dante, apparently familiar with her story, correctly identifies her by name. He asks her what led to her and Paolo's damnation, and Francesca's story strikes such a chord within Dante that he faints out of pity. More on Paolo and Francesca

Sir Francis Bernard Dicksee KCVO PRA (London 27 November 1853 – 17 October 1928) was an English Victorian painter and illustrator, best known for his pictures of dramatic literary, historical, and legendary scenes. He also was a noted painter of portraits of fashionable women, which helped to bring him success in his own time.

Dicksee's father, Thomas Dicksee, was a painter who taught Frank as well as his sister Margaret from a young age. Dicksee enrolled in the Royal Academy in 1870 and achieved early success. He was elected to the Academy in 1891 and became its President in 1924. He was knighted in 1925, and named to the Royal Victorian Order by King George V in 1927.

Dicksee painted The Funeral of a Viking (1893; Manchester Art Gallery), which was donated in 1928 by Arthur Burton in memory of his mother to the Corporation of Manchester. Victorian critics gave it both positive and negative reviews, for its perfection as a showpiece and for its dramatic and somewhat staged setting, respectively. The painting was used by Swedish Viking/Black metal band Bathory for the cover of their 1990 album, Hammerheart.  More on Sir Francis Bernard Dicksee 

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Tuesday, February 20, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! from the SPANISH GOLDEN AGE, With Footnotes - 85

Joan Maçip Navarro, Called Juan De Juanes
The Crucifixion.

Juan de Juanes was the dominant artistic personality working in Valencia during the mid-sixteenth century and this representation of the Crucifixion was painted in 1578, the year before his death. A late masterpiece by Juanes, the present work is precisely the type of painting that earned the artist the reputation as the Raphael of Spain. More on this painting

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st century Judea, most probably between the years 30 and 33 AD. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, and is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources.

According to the canonical gospels, Jesus, the Christ, was arrested, tried, and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally crucified by the Romans. Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with gall to drink, before being crucified. He was then hung between two convicted thieves and according to Mark's Gospel, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" in three languages. They then divided his garments among them, but cast lots for his seamless robe. After Jesus' death they pierced his side with a spear to be certain that he had died. More on the crucifixion

Juan de Juanes (c.1475-c.1545), was a Spanish painter, the son of the painter Vicente Macip , who had almost certainly studied in Italy, and probably in Venice. Juanes painted 'ideal' Counter-Reformation images, based on Leonardo's Last Supper and Raphael's Madonnas, but also with some influence from Flanders.

His work is technically less precise than that of his father in the delineation of form; he preferred sfumato effects in modelling, very different from the sharper sculptural outlines of Macip. In colour, Juanes preferred clear, luminous tones with which he achieved a characteristic Mannerist iridescence. His landscapes, too, differ from those of his father, becoming yet another decorative element. They often include classical ruins such as the pyramid of Caius Sextus or Egyptian obelisks, all of which are treated with the same delicacy and grace as his human forms. More Juan de Juanes

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Monday, February 19, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! from the SPANISH GOLDEN AGE, With Footnotes - 84

Juan Correa de Vivar (c.1510 - 16 April 1566)
Christ On The Road To Calvary

This panel was painted by Juan Correa de Vivar during the 1540s, and almost certainly formed part of the artist’s most important commission for the Cistercian Monastery of San Martín de Valdeiglesias, in the diocese of Toledo. It is an outstanding example of both Correa’s mature style and, more generally, the Mannerist tradition prevalent in Spain around the middle of the century, of which Correa himself was one of the leading exponents. More on this painting

Calvary, also Gagulta, was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was said to have been crucified. Golgotha(s) is the Greek transcription in the New Testament of the Aramaic term Gagultâ. The Bible translates the term to mean place of [the] skull, which in Latin is Calvariæ Locus, from which the English word Calvary is derived. More on Calvary, also Gagulta 

Juan Correa de Vivar (c.1510 - 16 April 1566) was a Spanish painter born in Mascaraque. When Juan was 17 or 18 years old he joined an artist workshop in Burgundy where he met with many other Spanish artists at the time.
Juan was heavily influenced by Raphael. One of his most important works was the altarpiece of the church of Almonacid de Zorita, in the province of Guadalajara. This work was done in collaboration with Alonso de Covarrubias. It was destroyed in World War II in 1936-39. From Raphael he took his colorful tone and delicate and smooth figures. Over the years his style evolved into more dynamic forms of Mannerism.
In the province of Toledo have been found some of Juan’s better known works. They include the altarpiece of San Roque, in Almorox, and the altarpiece of the collegiate church of Torrijos, whose twelve tables were done with the help of students of their factory. The Museo del Prado of Madrid also includes many excellent examples of his work.
Some of the work came to him through familiar contacts. Juan’s paintings for the greater altarpiece of Clarisas of Nectarine, dated between 1532 and 1534, were funded by his uncle Don Rodrigo de Vivar. Included works in these early years are also the table of the Birth of the Santa María de Guadalupe monastery and the altarpiece of identical subject that Juan did for Stewing, which today can be found in both the Museo del Prado and the Museum of Santa Cruz de Toledo. 
Some of his masterpieces from the 1540s can be found at the monastery of San Martin de Valdeiglesias today. There were also highly admired altarpieces that were taken after the ecclesiastical confiscation of 1836 and given to the Prado, other pinacotecas like those of Saragossa or Vigo, and churches like San Jerónimo el Real of Madrid.
Between 1550 and 1566, the year of his death, Juan’s style became more personal, taking on a mannerism style that makes his figures more forceful and energetic, but without losing his traditional elegance. More on Juan Correa de Vivar

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Saturday, February 17, 2018

01 Works, RELIGIOUS ART - Interpretation of the Bible! by the Old Masters, With Footnotes - 93

Madonna and Child 
Oil on canvas 
110 x 78cm
Private Collection

The Madonna and Child or The Virgin and Child is often the name of a work of art which shows the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. The word Madonna means "My Lady" in Italian. Artworks of the Christ Child and his mother Mary are part of the Roman Catholic tradition in many parts of the world including Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, South America and the Philippines. Paintings known as icons are also an important tradition of the Orthodox Church and often show the Mary and the Christ Child. They are found particularly in Eastern Europe, Russia, Egypt, the Middle East and India. More on The Madonna and Child

Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530) was an Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism. Though highly regarded during his lifetime as an artist senza errori ("without errors"), his renown was eclipsed after his death by that of his contemporaries, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael.

By 1494 Andrea was apprenticed to a goldsmith, and then to a woodcarver and painter named Gian Barile, with whom he remained until 1498. According to his late biographer Vasari, he then apprenticed to Piero di Cosimo, and later with Raffaellino del Garbo.

Andrea and an older friend Franciabigio decided to open a joint studio at a lodging together in the Piazza del Grano. By the time the partnership was dissolved, Sarto's style bore the stamp of individuality. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it "is marked throughout his career by an interest, exceptional among Florentines, in effects of colour and atmosphere and by sophisticated informality and natural expression of emotion." More on Andrea del Sarto

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