Saint Mustiola was first identified in this painting by Roberto Longhi in 1962.6 Saint Mustiola was the patron saint of Chiusi, an Umbrian town only fifty kilometres from Orvieto and Perugia. Her cult is strongly linked with the cult of the Santo Anello (the holy quartz ring that Saint Joesph is said to have given the Virgin Mary upon their marriage) which had been kept at different locations in Chiusi, at one time alongside the remains of the Saint. Longhi speculates that the inclusion of Saint Mustiola in the present work might indicate that it was commissioned by a patron from Chiusi.
Cola di Petruccioli, a native of Orvieto, was first recorded as the author of a fresco of The Crucifixion, signed and dated 1380, in the crypt under the tribune of the Duomo in Orvieto. Cola is known to have been one of several pupils working under Ugolino di Prete Ilario, the first well-known figure in the school of Orvieto, who was charged with much of the decoration of the Duomo between 1372–78. Ugliono appears to have been significantly influenced by the Sienese master Luca di Tommé and indeed documentation exists that confirms Luca’s presence in Orvieto at this time, and Ugolino’s acquaintance with him. Since Sienese masters such as Luca di Tommé travelled to neighbouring towns and often far further into the Italian peninsular, the particular artistic style of the Sienese that had developed from the radical and progressive works of masters such as Giotto and Simone Martini (who himself had worked in Orvieto around 1320), had an influence that extended far beyond Siena’s own city walls.
Here, in Cola’s enthroned Madonna and Child, we see proof of that influence on a charming, provincial Umbrian artist. Bernard Berenson was the first to endeavour to define Petruccioli's œuvre, and was able to give a name to this new small body of work on the basis of a signed diptych, at that time in the Spello Library and now in the Pinacoteca Communale, Spello. The two Spello panels represent The Coronation of the Virgin and The Crucifixion. As in the present work, the pinnacles of the Spello panels are separated from the lower part by an ornamentation in relief, and the gables above depict the Annunciation. For Berenson, the common indicators of Cola’s style were ‘the saucy female faces, with their pointed little noses, sensitive mouths, and mad eyes, […] their quaint piquancy gave me pleasure.’ The present work is, like the Spello diptych, a rare signed example by Cola. In this panel he signs his name COLA DE URBIUETERI, 'Urbiueteri' being the Latin name for the town of Orvieto, providing us with primary evidence of Cola's origin.
After 1495, Benozzo was invited to Pistoia, by his son Francesco. There, along with Alesso and Gerolamo painted various works, including an incomplete Maestà for the Palazzo Comunale More
His most notable work, signed and dated to 1508, is his Madonna of the Snow, now in the Pinacoteca in Siena. It echoes two female portraits painted by him at about the same time (one in the National Gallery of Art, Washington). Surviving documents and works show he mainly produced religious works, but also created paintings on secular themes for domestic settings and cassoni - the latter include his Judgement of Paris tondo (intended for a bedroom and now in the Louvre). More
Among Botticelli's best-known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera. More
His career-long fascination with the crucificion was triggered by a visit to see Salvador Dalí's Christ of St John of the Cross in 1951 after it was acquired by the Kelvingrove Gallery. More