Ptolemy IV Philopator, (born c. 238 bce—died 205 bce), Macedonian king of Egypt (reigned 221–205 bc), under whose feeble rule, heavily influenced by favourites, much of Ptolemaic Syria was lost and native uprisings began to disturb the internal stability of Egypt.
Ptolemy as a drunken, debauched reveller, completely under the influence of his disreputable associates. At their instigation, Ptolemy arranged the murder of his mother, uncle, and brother.
In 219, Antiochus III, the Syrian Seleucid ruler, captured some of the coastal cities, Sosibius and the Ptolemaic court entered into delaying negotiations with the enemy, while the Ptolemaic army was reorganized and intensively drilled. In 218 Antiochus renewed his advance, overrunning Ptolemy’s forward defenses. In the spring of 217, however, Ptolemy’s army met the Seleucid forces near Raphia in southern Palestine, and was victorious.
After Raphia, Ptolemy married his sister, Arsinoe, who bore him a successor in 210. The Egyptians, however, sensing their power, rose in a rebellion that Polybius, the Greek historian, describes as guerrilla warfare. By 205 the revolt had spread to Upper Egypt.
Ptolemy refused to become embroiled in the wars of the Greek states. In Syria, also, Ptolemy avoided involvement in local struggles. Ptolemy’s debauched and corrupt character, rather than his diplomatic acumen, kept him clear of foreign involvements. As his reign progressed, he fell increasingly under the influence of his favourites, and around November 205 he died. His clique of favourites kept Ptolemy’s death a secret and about a year later murdered Queen Arsinoe, leaving the young successor at their mercy. More on Ptolemy IV Philopator
François Joseph Heim, Dec 16, 1787 - Sep 29, 1865, was born at Belfort. He early distinguished himself at the École Centrale of Strassburg, and in 1803 entered the studio of Vincent at Paris. He was a fellow student of Horace Vernet. He won the second place in the 1806 Prix de Rome. In 1807 he obtained the first prize, and in 1812 his picture of "The Arrival of Jacob in Mesapotomia" won for him a gold medal of the first class, which he again obtained in 1817.
In 1819 the "Resurrection of Lazarus", the "Martyrdom of St Cyr", and two scenes from the life of Vespasian attracted attention. In 1823 the "Re-erection of the Royal Tombs at St Denis," the "Martyrdom of St Laurence" and several full-length portraits increased the painter's popularity; and in 1824, when he exhibited his great canvas, the "Massacre of the Jews", Heim was rewarded with the Legion of Honour. More on François Joseph Heim
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